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Optimizing the Entrainment Geometry of a Dry Powder Inhaler: Methodology and Preliminary Results.

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Murnane, Darragh 
Symons, Digby 


PURPOSE: For passive dry powder inhalers (DPIs) entrainment and emission of the aerosolized drug dose depends strongly on device geometry and the patient's inhalation manoeuvre. We propose a computational method for optimizing the entrainment part of a DPI. The approach assumes that the pulmonary delivery location of aerosol can be determined by the timing of dose emission into the tidal airstream. METHODS: An optimization algorithm was used to iteratively perform computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the drug emission of a DPI. The algorithm seeks to improve performance by changing the device geometry. Objectives were to achieve drug emission that was: A) independent of inhalation manoeuvre; B) similar to a target profile. The simulations used complete inhalation flow-rate profiles generated dependent on the device resistance. The CFD solver was OpenFOAM with drug/air flow simulated by the Eulerian-Eulerian method. RESULTS: To demonstrate the method, a 2D geometry was optimized for inhalation independence (comparing two breath profiles) and an early-bolus delivery. Entrainment was both shear-driven and gas-assisted. Optimization for a delay in the bolus delivery was not possible with the chosen geometry. CONCLUSIONS: Computational optimization of a DPI geometry for most similar drug delivery has been accomplished for an example entrainment geometry.


This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via


DPI, boundary-condition, cost-function, entrainment, optimization, Administration, Inhalation, Aerosols, Algorithms, Drug Delivery Systems, Dry Powder Inhalers, Equipment Design, Hydrodynamics, Lung

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Pharm Res

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council PhD studentship (Grant ID: EP/ M506485/1)
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