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A Quantum Light Source for Quantum Information Applications in the Telecom C-Band


Type

Thesis

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Authors

Abstract

Semiconductor quantum dot (QD) quantum light sources have long been established as suitable candidates for many quantum information applications, due to the on-demand emission of highly pure and highly indistinguishable single and entangled photons. A key factor in the development of this technology is the operation over the standard telecommunication optical fibre network infrastructure, where the minimum absorption wavelength window is centred on the telecom C-band (1530 – 1565 nm). Initial experiments in this work demonstrated single-photon emission of a QD light source emitting directly in the telecom C-band, under both continuous wave (CW) and 1-GHz pulsed excitation regimes. The QDs were further characterised in terms of fine-structure splitting (FSS) and coherence time, in order to determine their suitability for quantum entanglement and interference-based applications. Long coherence times were observed in the majority of the QDs considered, allowing the demonstration of Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference of subsequently emitted photons under CW excitation. The post-selected interference visibility was found to be limited by only the detector resolution and single-photon purity. A further demonstration of high-visibility interference under the same limitations was then made using QD photons and dissimilar photons from a laser, forming the basis of a fibre-based quantum relay. Working further towards a quantum relay, polarisation-entangled photon pairs in the telecom C-band were then generated using the radiative cascade of the biexciton, where a record high fidelity to the ©+ Bell state was observed under both CW and 1-GHz pulsed excitation regimes. While an anomalous effect of the FSS was observed in a majority of the studied QDs, a further characterisation of the FSS in terms of the QD polarisation eigenstates confirmed the emission of entangled photon pairs from such an anomalous-splitting QD. Finally, the work of this thesis was combined to demonstrate a proof-of-principle quantum relay using a QD light source in the telecom C-band. The relay was operated first under CW excitation where polarisation encoded laser input qubits were used and high-fidelity quantum teleportation was observed. In an effort to demonstrate a more technologically relevant application, the quantum relay was subsequently operated at 1 GHz in order to demonstrate the teleportation of initially time-bin encoded laser input qubits. A high mean teleportation fidelity was again observed, demonstrating the potential of this telecom C-band QD quantum light source in the future of long-distance quantum information applications.

Description

Date

2020-11-01

Advisors

Ritchie, David
Shields, Andrew

Keywords

Quantum dot, Quantum teleportation, Entanglement, Single photon source

Qualification

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Awarding Institution

University of Cambridge

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