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Strategies That Utilize Ion Pairing Interactions to Exert Selectivity Control in the Functionalization of C-H Bonds.

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Gillespie, James E 
Fanourakis, Alexander 


Electrostatic attraction between two groups of opposite charge, typically known as ion-pairing, offers unique opportunities for the design of systems to enable selectivity control in chemical reactions. Catalysis using noncovalent interactions is an established and vibrant research area, but it is noticeable that hydrogen bonding interactions are still the main interaction of choice in system design. Opposite charges experience the powerful force of Coulombic attraction and have the ability to exert fundamental influence on the outcome of reactions that involve charged reagents, intermediates or catalysts. In this Perspective, we will examine how ion-pairing interactions have been used to control selectivity in C-H bond functionalization processes. This broad class of reactions provides an interesting and thought-provoking lens through which to examine the application of ion-pairing design strategies because it is one that encompasses great mechanistic diversity, poses significant selectivity challenges, and perhaps most importantly is of immense interest to synthetic chemists in both industry and academia. We survey reactions that proceed via radical and ionic mechanisms alongside those that involve transition metal catalysis and will deal with control of site-selectivity and enantioselectivity. We anticipate that as this emerging area develops, it will become an ever-more important design strategy for selectivity control.



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J Am Chem Soc

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American Chemical Society (ACS)
Royal Society (RGF/EA/180005)
Royal Society (URF\R\191003)
European Research Council (757381)