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Association of Prior Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease with Dementia After Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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BACKGROUND: Prior atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), are common among patients with stroke, a known risk factor for dementia. However, whether these conditions further increase the risk of post-stroke dementia remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prior ASCVD is associated with increased risk of dementia among stroke patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with linkage to hospital data. Patients with first-ever stroke between 2006 and 2017 were followed up to 10 years. We used multi-variable Cox regression models to examine the associations of prior ASCVD with dementia and the impact of prior ASCVD onset and duration. RESULTS: Among 63,959 patients, 7,265 cases (11.4%) developed post-stroke dementia during a median of 3.6-year follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) of dementia adjusted for demographics and lifestyle was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.25) for ASCVD, 1.16 (1.10-1.23) for CHD, and 1.25 (1.13-1.37) for PAD. The HRs additionally adjusted for multimorbidity and medications were 1.07 (1.00-1.13), 1.04 (0.98-1.11), and 1.11 (1.00-1.22), respectively. Based on the fully adjusted estimates, there was no linear relationship between the age of ASCVD onset and post-stroke dementia (all p-trend >0.05). The adjusted risk of dementia was not increased with the duration of pre-stroke ASCVD (all p-trend >0.05). CONCLUSION: Stroke patients with prior ASCVD are more likely to develop subsequent dementia. After full adjustment for confounding, however, the risk of post-stroke dementia is attenuated, with only a slight increase with prior ASCVD.



Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cohort study, coronary artery disease, dementia, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cohort Studies, Dementia, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Stroke

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J Alzheimers Dis

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IOS Press


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NIHR (via Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust) (200536)
British Heart Foundation (None)
British Heart Foundation (CH/12/2/29428)
British Heart Foundation (RG/18/13/33946)
Wellcome Trust (204623/Z/16/Z)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00002/7)
We thank the CPRD@Cambridge team for developing the code lists used in this study. This work was supported by an independent grant from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School of Primary Care Research [SPCR-2014-10043, reference number 340]. Mant and Brayne are NIHR Senior Investigators. Yang is supported by the Cambridge Commonwealth, European and International Trust. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, or the Department of Health in the United Kingdom.