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A dynamic model of CO2 storage in layered anticlines

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jats:pWe explore jats:inline-formula jats:alternatives <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S002211202300900X_inline2.png" /> jats:tex-mathCO2</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula> injection into a layered permeable rock consisting of high permeability reservoir layers, separated by low permeability mudstone, and taking the shape of an anticline within a laterally extensive aquifer. We first show how the storage capacity of the formation depends on the capillary entry pressure of the inter-layer mudstone, so that jats:inline-formula jats:alternatives <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S002211202300900X_inline3.png" /> jats:tex-mathCO2</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula> cannot flow from one layer into the next. We then consider a formation composed of two layers, overlain by a cap rock. For injection into the lowest layer, we show that the injection rate, capillary entry pressure and buoyancy driven flux through the mudstone determine whether the lower or upper layer fills to the spill point first. We also show that at the end of the injection phase, jats:inline-formula jats:alternatives <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S002211202300900X_inline4.png" /> jats:tex-mathCO2</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula> may continue to flow from the lower to the upper layer. This implies that injection should be stopped once the injected volume matches the static capacity of the formation in order to prevent spilling after injection. We present a series of analogue experiments of a two layered system that illustrate some of the principles described by the model, and assess the implications of the results for field scale systems.</jats:p>



40 Engineering, 49 Mathematical Sciences

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Journal of Fluid Mechanics

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Cambridge University Press (CUP)