Repository logo

The Artificial Pancreas

Accepted version

No Thumbnail Available



Change log



Purpose of review: Advances in diabetes technologies have enabled the development of artificial pancreas (closed-loop) systems for people with diabetes. We review the key studies which have led to the adoption of the artificial pancreas in clinical practice and consider ongoing challenges and areas for future enhancements. Recent findings: Studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery systems in free-living settings over periods of up to 6 months for children and adults with type 1 diabetes. Since 2017, four hybrid closed-loop systems have been approved by regulatory bodies worldwide, but these systems are not entirely automated, requiring user interaction to deliver mealtime insulin boluses. Improving usability of these devices in the real-world setting is an important challenge. Summary: The artificial pancreas has become the gold standard for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. First generation systems are increasingly being adopted in clinical practice, however further work is required, developing advanced systems and faster acting insulin analogues to allow complete automation and further reduce the burden of type 1 diabetes.



Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Insulin, Insulin Infusion Systems, Pancreas, Artificial

Journal Title

Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Wolters Kluwer Health


All rights reserved
Wellcome Trust (100574/B/12/Z)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
upported by the National Institute of Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation National Institute for Health Research, The Leona M. & Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, JDRF, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and Diabetes UK.