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Regulation of the length of neuronal primary cilia and its potential effects on signalling.

Accepted version
Peer-reviewed

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Type

Article

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Authors

Macarelli, Viviana 
Leventea, Eleni 
Merkle, Florian T 

Abstract

Primary cilia protrude from most vertebrate cell bodies and act as specialized 'signalling antennae' that can substantially lengthen or retract in minutes to hours in response to specific stimuli. Here, we review the conditions and mechanisms responsible for regulating primary cilia length (PCL) in mammalian nonsensory neurons, and propose four models of how they could affect ciliary signalling and alter cell state and suggest experiments to distinguish between them. These models include (i) the passive indicator model, where changes in PCL have no consequence; (ii) the rheostat model, in which a longer cilium enhances signalling; (iii) the local concentration model, where ciliary shortening increases the local protein concentration to facilitate signalling; and (iv) the altered composition model where changes in PCL skew signalling.

Description

Keywords

GPCR, length changes, molecular concentration, primary cilia, signal transduction, Humans, Animals, Cilia, Signal Transduction, Vertebrates, Neurons, Mammals

Journal Title

Trends Cell Biol

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0962-8924
1879-3088

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
Wellcome Trust (211221/Z/18/Z)
New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF-R-156)
MRC (2623114)
New York Stem Cell Foundation [NYSCF-R-156] Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Programme