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An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Fructosamine Levels Identifies RCN3 as a Replicating Locus and Implicates FCGRT as the Effector Transcript.

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Riveros-Mckay, Fernando 
Roberts, David 
Di Angelantonio, Emanuele 
Yu, Bing 
Soranzo, Nicole 


Fructosamine is a measure of short-term glycemic control, which has been suggested as a useful complement to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. To date, a single genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 8,951 U.S. White and 2,712 U.S. Black individuals without a diabetes diagnosis has been published. Results in Whites and Blacks yielded different association loci, near RCN3 and CNTN5, respectively. In this study, we performed a GWAS on 20,731 European-ancestry blood donors and meta-analyzed our results with previous data from U.S. White participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (Nmeta = 29,685). We identified a novel association near GCK (rs3757840, βmeta = 0.0062; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.49; Pmeta = 3.66 × 10-8) and confirmed the association near RCN3 (rs113886122, βmeta = 0.0134; MAF = 0.17; Pmeta = 5.71 × 10-18). Colocalization analysis with whole-blood expression quantitative trait loci data suggested FCGRT as the effector transcript at the RCN3 locus. We further showed that fructosamine has low heritability (h2 = 7.7%), has no significant genetic correlation with HbA1c and other glycemic traits in individuals without a diabetes diagnosis (P > 0.05), but has evidence of shared genetic etiology with some anthropometric traits (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.0012). Our results broaden knowledge of the genetic architecture of fructosamine and prioritize FCGRT for downstream functional studies at the established RCN3 locus.



Adult, Atherosclerosis, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cohort Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Fructosamine, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Frequency, Genetic Loci, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Glycated Hemoglobin, Histocompatibility Antigens Class I, Humans, Male, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Receptors, Fc, United Kingdom, United States

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American Diabetes Association
Medical Research Council (MR/L003120/1)
British Heart Foundation (None)
British Heart Foundation (RG/18/13/33946)