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Oropouche Virus Glycoprotein Topology and Cellular Requirements for Glycoprotein Secretion.

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Concha, Juan O 


Oropouche virus (OROV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the etiological agent of Oropouche fever, a debilitating febrile illness common in South America. We used recombinant expression of the OROV M polyprotein, which encodes the surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc plus the nonstructural protein NSm, to probe the cellular determinants for OROV assembly and budding. Gn and Gc self-assemble and are secreted independently of NSm. Mature OROV Gn has two predicted transmembrane domains that are crucial for glycoprotein translocation to the Golgi complex and glycoprotein secretion, and unlike related orthobunyaviruses, both transmembrane domains are retained during Gn maturation. Disruption of Golgi function using the drugs brefeldin A and monensin inhibits glycoprotein secretion. Infection studies have previously shown that the cellular endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is recruited to Golgi membranes during OROV assembly and that ESCRT activity is required for virus secretion. A dominant-negative form of the ESCRT-associated ATPase VPS4 significantly reduces recombinant OROV glycoprotein secretion and blocks virus release from infected cells, and VPS4 partly colocalizes with OROV glycoproteins and membranes costained with Golgi markers. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrate that OROV glycoproteins interact with the ESCRT-III component CHMP6, with overexpression of a dominant-negative form of CHMP6 significantly reducing OROV glycoprotein secretion. Taken together, our data highlight differences in M polyprotein processing across orthobunyaviruses, indicate that Golgi and ESCRT function are required for glycoprotein secretion, and identify CHMP6 as an ESCRT-III component that interacts with OROV glycoproteins. IMPORTANCE Oropouche virus causes Oropouche fever, a debilitating illness common in South America that is characterized by high fever, headache, myalgia, and vomiting. The tripartite genome of this zoonotic virus is capable of reassortment, and there have been multiple epidemics of Oropouche fever in South America over the last 50 years, making Oropouche virus infection a significant threat to public health. However, the molecular characteristics of this arbovirus are poorly understood. We developed a recombinant protein expression system to investigate the cellular determinants of OROV glycoprotein maturation and secretion. We show that the proteolytic processing of the M polypeptide, which encodes the surface glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) plus a nonstructural protein (NSm), differs between OROV and its close relative Bunyamwera virus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that OROV M glycoprotein secretion requires the cellular endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) membrane-remodeling machinery and identify that the OROV glycoproteins interact with the ESCRT protein CHMP6.



Bunyamwera virus, ESCRT, Oropouche fever, Oropouche virus, arbovirus, bunyavirus, polyprotein processing, virus budding, Humans, Bunyaviridae Infections, Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport, Membrane Glycoproteins, Orthobunyavirus, Viral Proteins

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J Virol

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American Society for Microbiology
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/S018670/1)
Wellcome Trust (098406/Z/12/B)
Wellcome Trust (098406/Z/12/Z)
This work was supported by doctoral studentship and travelling fellowship from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP; 2016/18356-4 and 2019/02945-9) to NSB, by a FAPESP Pump Priming award (2019/02418-9) to LLPdS, by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/FAPESP pump priming award (BB/S018670/1) to CMC, LLPdS and SCG, and by a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship co-funded by the Royal Society and the Wellcome Trust (098406/Z/12/B) to SCG.
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