A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages.

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Pereira, Mafalda MA 
Mahú, Inês 
Seixas, Elsa 
Martinéz-Sánchez, Noelia 
Kubasova, Nadiya 

Conditional expression of diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is widely used for tissue-specific ablation of cells. However, diphtheria toxin (DT) crosses the blood-brain barrier, which limits its utility for ablating peripheral cells using Cre drivers that are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report the development of a brain-sparing DT, termed BRAINSPAReDT, for tissue-specific genetic ablation of cells outside the CNS. We prevent blood-brain barrier passage of DT through PEGylation, which polarizes the molecule and increases its size. We validate BRAINSPAReDT with regional genetic sympathectomy: BRAINSPAReDT ablates peripheral but not central catecholaminergic neurons, thus avoiding the Parkinson-like phenotype associated with full dopaminergic depletion. Regional sympathectomy compromises adipose tissue thermogenesis, and renders mice susceptible to obesity. We provide a proof of principle that BRAINSPAReDT can be used for Cre/DTR tissue-specific ablation outside the brain using CNS drivers, while consolidating the link between adiposity and the sympathetic nervous system.

Animals, Brain, Cell Lineage, Diphtheria Toxin, Disease Susceptibility, Energy Metabolism, Feeding Behavior, Female, Gene Deletion, Gene Expression Regulation, Glucose Intolerance, HeLa Cells, Humans, Hydrodynamics, Male, Mice, Movement, Neurons, Norepinephrine, Obesity, Parkinson Disease, Polyethylene Glycols, Sympathectomy, Thermogenesis
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Nat Commun
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC