Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is increasing due to aging of the population and is a major cause of death among the elderly. Ultrasound screening programs are useful in early diagnosis, but aneurysm size is not always a good predictor of rupture. Our aim was to analyze the value of circulating molecules related to oxidative stress and inflammation as new biomarkers to assist the management of AAA. The markers were quantified by ELISA, and their expression in the aneurysmal wall was studied by real-time PCR and by immunostaining. Correlation analysis of the studied markers with aneurysm diameter and peak wall stress (PWS), obtained by finite element analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to assess potential confounding factors were performed. Our study shows an extensive inflammatory infiltration in the aneurysmal wall, mainly composed by T-cells, macrophages and B-cells and altered levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IgM, IgG, CD38, GDF15, S100A4 and CD36 in plasma and in the aneurysmal tissue of AAA patients compared with controls. Circulating levels of IgG, CD38 and GDF15 positively correlated with abdominal aortic diameter, and CD38 was correlated with PWS. Our data show that altered levels of IgG, CD38 and GDF15 have potential diagnostic value in the assessment of AAA.