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A Retrospective Study of Clinical and Histopathological Features of 81 Cases of Canine Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma of the Anal Sac: Independent Clinical and Histopathological Risk Factors Associated with Outcome.

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Byrne, Stephanie 
Rasotto, Roberta 
Drees, Randi 
Taylor, Angela 


Canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASAC) is a malignant tumour with variable clinical progression. The objective of this study was to use robust multivariate models, based on models employed in human medical oncology, to establish clinical and histopathological risk factors of poor survival. Clinical data and imaging of 81 cases with AGASAC were reviewed. Tissue was available for histological review and immunohistochemistry in 49 cases. Tumour and lymph node size were determined using the response evaluation criteria in the solid tumours system (RECIST). Modelling revealed tumour size over 2 cm, lymph node size grouped in three tiers by the two thresholds 1.6 cm and 5 cm, surgical management, and radiotherapy were independent clinical variables associated with survival, irrespective of tumour stage. Tumour size over 1.3 cm and presence of distant metastasis were independent clinical variables associated with the first progression-free interval. The presence of the histopathological variables of tumour necrosis, a solid histological pattern, and vascular invasion in the primary tumour were independent risk factors of poor survival. Based upon these independent risk factors, scoring algorithms to predict survival in AGASAC patients are presented.



anal sac adenocarcinoma, apocrine gland, histology, hypercalcemia, necrosis, prognosis, radiotherapy, surgery, vascular invasion

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Animals (Basel)

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Wellcome Trust (096413/Z/11/Z)