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A spatial and temporal analysis of paediatric central nervous system infections from 2005 to 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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Ho, NT 
Hoang, VMT 
Le, NNT 
Nguyen, DT 
Tran, A 


Central nervous system infections (CNSI) are a leading cause of death and long-term disability in children. Using ICD-10 data from 2005 to 2015 from three central hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we exploited generalized additive mixed models (GAMM) to examine the spatial-temporal distribution and spatial and climatic risk factors of paediatric CNSI, excluding tuberculous meningitis, in this setting. From 2005 to 2015, there were 9469 cases of paediatric CNSI; 33% were ⩽1 year old at admission and were mainly diagnosed with presumed bacterial CNSI (BI) (79%), the remainder were >1 year old and mainly diagnosed with presumed non-bacterial CNSI (non-BI) (59%). The urban districts of HCMC in proximity to the hospitals as well as some outer districts had the highest incidences of BI and non-BI; BI incidence was higher in the dry season. Monthly BI incidence exhibited a significant decreasing trend over the study. Both BI and non-BI were significantly associated with lags in monthly average temperature, rainfall, and river water level. Our findings add new insights into this important group of infections in Vietnam, and highlight where resources for the prevention and control of paediatric CNSI should be allocated.



Encephalitis, epidemiology, meningitis, paediatric, spatial temporal, Adolescent, Central Nervous System Infections, Child, Child, Preschool, Encephalitis, Viral, Female, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Male, Meningitis, Bacterial, Meningitis, Viral, Risk Factors, Seasons, Spatio-Temporal Analysis, Urban Population, Vietnam

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Epidemiology and Infection

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Cambridge University Press
This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust. SB is a Sir Henry Dale Fellow, jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (100087/Z/12/Z). NTH is currently funded by a Mervyn Susser Fellowship at Columbia University Medical Center, USA