Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Proinflammatory Cytokine-Mediated Inhibition of Trophoblast Invasion in Placenta-Related Complications of Pregnancy.
Shallow extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion is central to the pathophysiology of many pregnancy complications. Invasion is mediated partially by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 is highly expressed in early pregnancy. MMP activity can be regulated by proinflammatory cytokines, which also induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in other cells. We investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines regulate MMP-2 activity through ER stress response pathways in trophoblast before exploring potential regulatory mechanisms. There was increased immunoreactivity of heat shock 70-kDa protein 5, also known as 78-kDa glucose regulated protein, in cells of the placental bed, including EVTs, in cases of early-onset preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls. Treating EVT-like JEG-3 and HTR8/SVneo cells with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) suppressed MMP2 mRNA and protein expression, secretion, and activity and reduced their invasiveness. A cocktail of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) suppressed MMP-2 activity in JEG-3 cells and was accompanied by activation of the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (EIF2A) arm of the ER stress pathway. Knockdown of ATF4, a downstream transcriptional factor of the PERK-EIF2A pathway, by small interference RNA, restored MMP2 expression but not cellular proteins. However, suppression of EIF2A phosphorylation with a PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, under ER stress, restored MMP-2 protein. ER stress regulates MMP-2 expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. This study provides the first mechanistic linkage by which proinflammatory cytokines may modulate trophoblast invasion through ER stress pathways.