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Discovery and systematic characterization of risk variants and genes for coronary artery disease in over a million participants

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jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pThe discovery of genetic loci associated with complex diseases has outpaced the elucidation of mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 181,522 cases among 1,165,690 participants of predominantly European ancestry. We detected 241 associations, including 30 new loci. Cross-ancestry meta-analysis with a Japanese GWAS yielded 38 additional new loci. We prioritized likely causal variants using functionally informed fine-mapping, yielding 42 associations with less than five variants in the 95% credible set. Similarity-based clustering suggested roles for early developmental processes, cell cycle signaling and vascular cell migration and proliferation in the pathogenesis of CAD. We prioritized 220 candidate causal genes, combining eight complementary approaches, including 123 supported by three or more approaches. Using CRISPR–Cas9, we experimentally validated the effect of an enhancer in jats:italicMYO9B</jats:italic>, which appears to mediate CAD risk by regulating vascular cell motility. Our analysis identifies and systematically characterizes >250 risk loci for CAD to inform experimental interrogation of putative causal mechanisms for CAD.</jats:p>


Funder: K.G.A. has received support from the American Heart Association Institute for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine (17IFUNP3384001), a KL2/Catalyst Medical Research Investigator Training (CMeRIT) award from the Harvard Catalyst (KL2 TR002542), and the NIH (1K08HL153937).

Funder: B.N.W is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Program (DGE 1256260).

Funder: I.S. is supported by a Precision Health Scholars Award from the University of Michigan Medical School.

Funder: I.K., S.Ko., and K.It. are funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED, under Grant Numbers JP16ek0109070h0003, JP18kk0205008h0003, JP18kk0205001s0703, JP20km0405209, and JP20ek0109487. The BioBank Japan is supported by AMED under Grant Number JP20km0605001.

Funder: J.L.M.B. acknowledges research support from NIH R01HL125863, American Heart Association (A14SFRN20840000), the Swedish Research Council (2018-02529) and Heart Lung Foundation (20170265) and the Foundation Leducq (PlaqueOmics: Novel Roles of Smooth Muscle and Other Matrix Producing Cells in Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Rupture, 18CVD02.

Funder: P.S.dV was supported by American Heart Association grant number 18CDA34110116 and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant R01HL146860. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (contract numbers HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700004I and HHSN268201700005I), R01HL087641, R01HL059367 and R01HL086694; National Human Genome Research Institute contract U01HG004402; and National Institutes of Health contract HHSN268200625226C. The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. Infrastructure was partly supported by Grant Number UL1RR025005, a component of the National Institutes of Health and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.

Funder: O.G. has received funding from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) (FS/14/66/3129).

Funder: T.K. is supported by the Corona-Foundation (Junior Research Group Translational Cardiovascular Genomics) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the Sonderforschungsbereich SFB 1123 (B02).

Funder: D.S.A. has received support from a training grant from the NIH (T32HL007604).

Funder: N.P.B., M.C.C., J.F., and D.-K.J. have been funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2UM1DK105554).

Funder: A.V.K. has been funded by 1K08HG010155 from the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Funder: C.P.N. and T.R.W received funding from the British Heart Foundation (SP/16/4/32697).

Funder: The Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a collaboration between HUNT Research Centre (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Trøndelag County Council, Central Norway Regional Health Authority, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology is financed by Stiftelsen Kristian Gerhard Jebsen; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; and Central Norway Regional Health Authority. Whole genome sequencing for the HUNT study was funded by HL109946.

Funder: O.M. was funded by the Swedish Heart- and Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the European Research Council ERC-AdG-2019-885003 and Lund University Infrastructure grant ”Malmö population-based cohorts” (STYR 2019/2046).

Funder: This work was supported by the European Commission (HEALTH-F2–2013-601456) and the TriPartite Immunometabolism Consortium [TrIC]- NovoNordisk Foundation (NNF15CC0018486), VIAgenomics (SP/19/2/344612), the British Heart Foundation, a Wellcome Trust core award (M.F., H.W., 203141/Z/16/Z) and support from the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre. M.F. and H.W. are members of the Oxford BHF Centre of Research Excellence (RE/13/1/30181). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

Funder: J.D. is a British Heart Foundation Professor, European Research Council Senior Investigator, and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Senior Investigator.

Funder: J.C.H. acknowledges personal funding from the British Heart Foundation (FS/14/55/30806) and is a member of the Oxford BHF Centre of Research Excellence (RE/13/1/30181).

Funder: R.C. has received funding from the British Heart Foundation and British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence.

Funder: This research was supported by BHF (SP/13/2/30111) and conducted using the UK Biobank Resource (application number 9922).

Funder: The GerMIFs gratefully acknowledge the support of the Bavarian State Ministry of Health and Care, furthermore founded this work within its framework of DigiMed Bayern (grant No: DMB-1805-0001), the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of ERA-NET on Cardiovascular Disease (Druggable-MI-genes: 01KL1802), within the scheme of target validation (BlockCAD: 16GW0198K), within the framework of the e:Med research and funding concept (AbCD-Net: 01ZX1706C), the British Heart Foundation (BHF)/German Centre of Cardiovascular Research (DZHK)-collaboration (VIAgenomics) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the Sonderforschungsbereich SFB 1123 (B02) and the Sonderforschungsbereich SFB TRR 267 (B05).

Funder: C.J.W. is funded by NIH grant R35-HL135824.

Funder: This work was supported by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) grant RG/14/5/30893 (P.D.) and forms part of the research themes contributing to the translational research portfolios of the Barts Biomedical Research Centre funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).


Article, /692/699/75/2, /631/208/205/2138, article

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Nature Genetics

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