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Decompressive Craniectomy in Trauma: What You Need to Know

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of injury-related death and disability, with an annual incidence estimated at 27 to 69 million and $600,000 to $1.8 million lifetime cost per case. Roughly 55 million people (prevalence), corresponding to 0.7% of the world’s population, suffer from a TBI globally. A recent systematic review in Europe estimated the crude incidence to range from 47.3 to 848 per 100,000, with the crude mortality ranging from 3.3 to 28.1 per 100,0003. However, global estimates denote that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionally affected, with three times more TBI cases than high-income countries (HICs). Males can be affected twice as much as females. The distribution of TBI across ages is bimodal, highest amongst the pediatric population and older adults. Falls and motor‐ vehicle crashes predominate in TBI‐ related deaths in civilians, while blast‐ induced TBI is the most frequent type in the military. In HICs, TBI in the elderly is increasing due to falls, whereas in LMICs, TBI due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) predominates. TBI is a significant global public health issue.



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The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery

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Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

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