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Methods for biogeochemical studies of sea ice: The state of the art, caveats, and recommendations

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Miller, LA 
Fripiat, F 
Else, BGT 
Bowman, JS 
Brown, KA 


jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pOver the past two decades, with recognition that the ocean’s sea-ice cover is neither insensitive to climate change nor a barrier to light and matter, research in sea-ice biogeochemistry has accelerated significantly, bringing together a multi-disciplinary community from a variety of fields. This disciplinary diversity has contributed a wide range of methodological techniques and approaches to sea-ice studies, complicating comparisons of the results and the development of conceptual and numerical models to describe the important biogeochemical processes occurring in sea ice. Almost all chemical elements, compounds, and biogeochemical processes relevant to Earth system science are measured in sea ice, with published methods available for determining biomass, pigments, net community production, primary production, bacterial activity, macronutrients, numerous natural and anthropogenic organic compounds, trace elements, reactive and inert gases, sulfur species, the carbon dioxide system parameters, stable isotopes, and water-ice-atmosphere fluxes of gases, liquids, and solids. For most of these measurements, multiple sampling and processing techniques are available, but to date there has been little intercomparison or intercalibration between methods. In addition, researchers collect different types of ancillary data and document their samples differently, further confounding comparisons between studies. These problems are compounded by the heterogeneity of sea ice, in which even adjacent cores can have dramatically different biogeochemical compositions. We recommend that, in future investigations, researchers design their programs based on nested sampling patterns, collect a core suite of ancillary measurements, and employ a standard approach for sample identification and documentation. In addition, intercalibration exercises are most critically needed for measurements of biomass, primary production, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter (including exopolymers), the CO2 system, air-ice gas fluxes, and aerosol production. We also encourage the development of in situ probes robust enough for long-term deployment in sea ice, particularly for biological parameters, the CO2 system, and other gases.</jats:p>



Atmospheric Science, Ocean Science

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University of California Press
This manuscript is a product of SCOR working group 140 on Biogeochemical Exchange Processes at Sea-Ice Interfaces (BEPSII); we thank BEPSII chairs Jacqueline Stefels and Nadja Steiner and SCOR executive director Ed Urban for their practical and moral support of this endeavour. This manuscript was first conceived at an EU COST Action 735 workshop held in Amsterdam in April 2011; in addition to COST 735, we thank the other participants of the “methods” break-out group at that meeting, namely Gerhard Dieckmann, Christoph Garbe, and Claire Hughes. Our editors, Steve Ackley and Jody Deming, and our reviewers, Mats Granskog and two anonymous reviewers, provided invaluable advice that not only identified and helped fill in some gaps, but also suggested additional ways to make what is by nature a rather dry subject (methods) at least a bit more interesting and accessible. We also thank the librarians at the Institute of Ocean Sciences for their unflagging efforts to track down the more obscure references we required. Finally, and most importantly, we thank everyone who has braved the unknown and made the new measurements that have helped build sea-ice biogeochemistry into the robust and exciting field it has become.