Using SAD data in Phaser.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Read, Randy J 
McCoy, Airlie J 
Abstract

Phaser is a program that implements likelihood-based methods to solve macromolecular crystal structures, currently by molecular replacement or single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD). SAD phasing is based on a likelihood target derived from the joint probability distribution of observed and calculated pairs of Friedel-related structure factors. This target combines information from the total structure factor (primarily non-anomalous scattering) and the difference between the Friedel mates (anomalous scattering). Phasing starts from a substructure, which is usually but not necessarily a set of anomalous scatterers. The substructure can also be a protein model, such as one obtained by molecular replacement. Additional atoms are found using a log-likelihood gradient map, which shows the sites where the addition of scattering from a particular atom type would improve the likelihood score. An automated completion algorithm adds new sites, choosing optionally among different atom types, adds anisotropic B-factor parameters if appropriate and deletes atoms that refine to low occupancy. Log-likelihood gradient maps can also identify which atoms in a refined protein structure are anomalous scatterers, such as metal or halide ions. These maps are more sensitive than conventional model-phased anomalous difference Fouriers and the iterative completion algorithm is able to find a significantly larger number of convincing sites.

Description
Keywords
Crystallography, X-Ray, Probability, Proteins, Software
Journal Title
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
0907-4449
1399-0047
Volume Title
67
Publisher
International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
Sponsorship
Wellcome Trust (082961/Z/07/Z)
Wellcome Trust (050211/Z/97/A)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (P01GM063210)