Repository logo

The Chinese version of obsessive compulsive drug use scale: validation in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment program

Published version

Change log


Gong, Hengfen 
Zhang, Yingying 
Ren, Qihuan 
Zhou, Zhirong 
Zhou, Huijing 


Abstract: Background: The Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) measures the overall craving level within a period from a multidimensional perspective. However, no studies have addressed the validity of the new OCDUS factor structure, presented in 2016, in China. Additionally, there is lack of evidence on the interaction among risk factors for relapse. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the scores of the Chinese version of the OCDUS in patients with heroin dependence receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Further, we aimed to assess the correlations of the OCDUS scores with withdrawal symptoms, depression, anxiety, and nicotine dependence. Methods: We enrolled 113 adults (age 32–64 years) and administered them with the OCDUS, Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Results: Exploratory factor analysis identified a 3-dimensional component that included “Frequency of craving,” “Inference of heroin,” and “Control of heroin.” These factors showed acceptable internal consistency, adequate item-total correlations, and significant item-subscale correlations. There was no correlation between the OCUDS scores and age, education, duration of receiving MMT, and MMT dosages. However, there was a significant correlation between the OCDUS total scores and the SOWS, STAI, BDI-II, and FTND scores. The scores of all the subscales were associated with the SOWS scores; further, the scores of the first two subscales were associated with BDI-II scores while only the scores of the first subscale were associated with the FTND scores. Conclusions: Our findings support the reliability and structure validity of the OCDUS scores. Heroin craving, withdrawal symptoms, negative emotions, and nicotine dependence, which are considered as risk factors for heroin relapse, might interact with each other. There is a need for further studies on the underlying mechanism of these clinical phenomena.


Funder: Guangci Professorship Program of Ruijin Hospital and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine 2018 International and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Regional Research Cooperation Project


Research Article, Substance-related disorders, addiction and impulse control, Obsessive compulsive drug use scale, Methadone maintenance treatment, Craving, Nicotine dependence, Heroin

Journal Title

BMC Psychiatry

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



BioMed Central
Shanghai Pudong New District Health and Family Planning Commission Key Discipline Construction Fund Project (PWZxk2017-29)
Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2018SHZDZX05)
Shanghai Clinical Research Center for Mental Health (19MC1911100)