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Comparative Oncologic and Toxicity Outcomes of Salvage Radical Prostatectomy Versus Nonsurgical Therapies for Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Regression Analysis.

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Philippou, Yiannis 
Parker, Richard A 
Volanis, Dimitrios 
Gnanapragasam, Vincent J 


CONTEXT: In the absence of randomised controlled trials comparing the oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP), salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (SHIFU), salvage brachytherapy (SBT), and salvage cryotherapy (SCT), controversy exists as to the optimal salvage modality in radiorecurrent prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: We carried out a meta-regression analysis to determine whether there is a difference in oncologic, toxicity, and functional outcomes using data from original publications of salvage modalities in the postradiation setting. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic review of PubMed/Medline citations according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. We included 63 articles in the analysis (25 on SRP, 8 on SHIFU, 16 on SCT, 14 on SBT). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Median values of the following variables were extracted from each study: patient age, length of follow-up, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) before radiotherapy (RT), PSA before salvage therapy, Gleason score before RT, and time interval between RT and salvage therapy. Functional, toxicity, and oncologic outcomes were measured according to rates of impotence, incontinence, fistula formation, urethral strictures, and biochemical recurrence. Meta-regression adjusting for confounders found no significant difference in oncologic outcomes between SRP and nonsurgical salvage modalities. SBT, SCT, and SHIFU appeared to have better continence outcomes than SRP. No significant difference in toxicity outcomes between modalities was found, although limitations such as reporting, selection, and publication bias and between-study heterogeneity must also be considered with these conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologic outcomes are comparable for SRP and all three nonsurgical salvage modalities. We found no significant differences in toxicity outcomes among modalities; however, SRP appears to be associated with worse rates of urinary incontinence than SBT, SCT, and SHIFU. PATIENT SUMMARY: We performed a meta-regression analysis to compare oncologic, functional, and toxicity outcomes between salvage radical prostatectomy and nonsurgical salvage modalities. Oncologic and toxicity outcomes appear to be similar; however, all nonsurgical salvage modalities may be associated with better continence outcomes.



Brachytherapy, Cryotherapy, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Prostate cancer, Radical prostatectomy, Salvage therapy

Journal Title

Eur Urol Focus

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Elsevier BV