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Developing Age-Friendly Cities: An evidence-based evaluation tool

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Pope, D 
Mattocks, C 
Dherani, M 


Recent years have seen a proliferation of initiatives aimed at enhancing the age-friendliness of urban settings. The World Health Organization's (WHO) global Age-Friendly Cities (AFC) programme has been central to these. Cities seeking to become more age-friendly need reliable ways of assessing their efforts. This article describes an evidence-based evaluation tool for age-friendly initiatives whose development was informed by fieldwork in Liverpool/UK. The tool complements existing assessment frameworks, including those provided by WHO, by paying particular attention to the structures and processes underlying age-friendly initiatives. It reflects the complexity of age-friendliness by reconciling a focus on breadth with detail and depth, and it allows for a highly accessible visual presentation of findings. Using selected examples from Liverpool, the article illustrates how the evaluation tool can be applied to guide policy and practice with an age-friendly focus in different urban contexts. Pilot testing in further settings is underway to refine the tool as a practical method for evaluation and for supporting city-level decision making. Key words: Age-Friendly City; evaluation tool; ageing; urbanisation; complex interventions



Age-Friendly City, Evaluation tool, Ageing, Urbanisation, Complex interventions

Journal Title

Journal of Population Ageing

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Volume Title


Springer Nature
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (unknown)