The SLC25 Mitochondrial Carrier Family: Structure and Mechanism.
Members of the mitochondrial carrier family (SLC25) provide the transport steps for amino acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, cofactors, inorganic ions, and nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane and are crucial for many cellular processes. Here, we use new insights into the transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier to examine the structure and function of other mitochondrial carriers. They all have a single substrate-binding site and two gates, which are present on either side of the membrane and involve salt-bridge networks. Transport is likely to occur by a common mechanism, in which the coordinated movement of six structural elements leads to the alternating opening and closing of the matrix or cytoplasmic side of the carriers.