Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment.


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Authors
Block, Keith I 
Gyllenhaal, Charlotte 
Lowe, Leroy 
Amedei, Amedeo 
Amin, ARM Ruhul 
Abstract

Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broad-spectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment. Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered.

Description
Keywords
Cancer hallmarks, Integrative medicine, Multi-targeted, Phytochemicals, Targeted therapy, Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Genetic Heterogeneity, Humans, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Neoplasms, Precision Medicine, Signal Transduction, Tumor Microenvironment
Journal Title
Semin Cancer Biol
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
1044-579X
1096-3650
Volume Title
35
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12022/6)
Medical Research Council (MC_U105663142)
MRC (unknown)
Multiple funders. See acknowledgments within article for details.