Repository logo

Tempering of Low-Temperature Bainite

Published version

Change log


Peet, MJ 
Babu, SS 
Miller, MK 
Bhadeshia, HKDH 


Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atom probe tomography have been used to identify the changes which occur during the tempering of a carbide-free bainitic steel transformed at 473 K (200 °C). Partitioning of solute between ferrite and thin-films of retained austenite was observed on tempering at 673 K (400 °C) for 30 minutes. After tempering at 673 K (400 °C) and 773 K (500 °C) for 30 minutes, cementite was observed in the form of nanometre scale precipitates. Proximity histograms showed that the partitioning of solutes other than silicon from the cementite was slight at 673 K (400 °C) and more obvious at 773 K (500 °C). In both cases, the nanometre scale carbides are greatly depleted in silicon.



Ferrite, Austenite, Cementite, Bainite, Carbide Particle

Journal Title

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



The authors are grateful to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, TATA Steel Europe and The Worshipful Company of Ironmongers for supporting this research. Research supported through a user project supported by ORNL’s Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS), which is sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.