Repository logo

TIARA 2.0: an interactive tool for annotating discourse structure and text improvement

Published version

Change log


Putra, JWG 
Matsumura, K 
Teufel, S 
Tokunaga, T 


jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pDiscourse structure annotation aims at analysing how discourse units (e.g. sentences or clauses) relate to each other and what roles they play in the overall discourse. Several annotation tools for discourse structure have been developed. However, they often only support specific annotation schemes, making their usage limited to new schemes. This article presents TIARA 2.0, an annotation tool for discourse structure and text improvement. Departing from our specific needs, we extend an existing tool to accommodate four levels of annotation: discourse structure, argumentative structure, sentence rearrangement and content alteration. The latter two are particularly unique compared to existing tools. TIARA is implemented on standard web technologies and can be easily customised. It deals with the visual complexity during the annotation process by systematically simplifying the layout and by offering interactive visualisation, including clutter-reducing features and dual-view display. TIARA’s text-view allows annotators to focus on the analysis of logical sequencing between sentences. The tree-view allows them to review their analysis in terms of the overall discourse structure. Apart from being an annotation tool, it is also designed to be useful for educational purposes in the teaching of argumentation; this gives it an edge over other existing tools.</jats:p>


Funder: Tokyo Institute of Technology (JP)

Funder: Support Center for Advanced Telecommunications Technology Research Foundation; doi:


Annotation tool, Discourse structure, Argumentative structure, Teaching of argumentation

Journal Title

Language Resources and Evaluation

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (20J13239)