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Constraining the Nature of the PDS 70 Protoplanets with VLTI/GRAVITY ∗ ∗ Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 0101.C-0281(B), 1103.B-0626(A), 2103.C-5018(A), and 1104.C-0651(A).

Published version
Peer-reviewed

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Abstract

Abstract: We present K-band interferometric observations of the PDS 70 protoplanets along with their host star using VLTI/GRAVITY. We obtained K-band spectra and 100 μas precision astrometry of both PDS 70 b and c in two epochs, as well as spatially resolving the hot inner disk around the star. Rejecting unstable orbits, we found a nonzero eccentricity for PDS 70 b of 0.17 ± 0.06, a near-circular orbit for PDS 70 c, and an orbital configuration that is consistent with the planets migrating into a 2:1 mean motion resonance. Enforcing dynamical stability, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the mass of PDS 70 b of 10 M Jup, while the mass of PDS 70 c was unconstrained. The GRAVITY K-band spectra rules out pure blackbody models for the photospheres of both planets. Instead, the models with the most support from the data are planetary atmospheres that are dusty, but the nature of the dust is unclear. Any circumplanetary dust around these planets is not well constrained by the planets’ 1–5 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and requires longer wavelength data to probe with SED analysis. However with VLTI/GRAVITY, we made the first observations of a circumplanetary environment with sub-astronomical-unit spatial resolution, placing an upper limit of 0.3 au on the size of a bright disk around PDS 70 b.

Description

Keywords

350, The Solar System, Exoplanets, and Astrobiology

Journal Title

The Astronomical Journal

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0004-6256
1538-3881

Volume Title

161

Publisher

The American Astronomical Society
Sponsorship
EC ∣ H2020 ∣ H2020 Priority Excellent Science ∣ H2020 European Research Council (ERC) (83 24 28)
EC ∣ H2020 ∣ H2020 Priority Excellent Science ∣ H2020 European Research Council (ERC) (757561)