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BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants and prostate cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but a wide range of relative risks (RRs) has been reported. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library in June 2021 for studies that estimated PCa RRs for male BRCA1/2 carriers, with no time or language restrictions. The literature search identified 27 studies (BRCA1: n = 20, BRCA2: n = 21). RESULTS: The heterogeneity between the published estimates was high (BRCA1: I2 = 30%, BRCA2: I2 = 83%); this could partly be explained by selection for age, family history or aggressive disease, and study-level differences in ethnicity composition, use of historical controls, and location of PVs within BRCA2. The pooled RRs were 2.08 (95% CI 1.38-3.12) for Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA2 carriers, 4.35 (95% CI 3.50-5.41) for non-Ashkenazi European ancestry BRCA2 carriers, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.95-1.47) for BRCA1 carriers. At ages <65 years, the RRs were 7.14 (95% CI 5.33-9.56) for non-Ashkenazi European ancestry BRCA2 and 1.78 (95% CI 1.09-2.91) for BRCA1 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: These PCa risk estimates will assist in guiding clinical management. The study-level subgroup analyses indicate that risks may be modified by age and ethnicity, and for BRCA2 carriers by PV location within the gene, which may guide future risk-estimation studies.



Aged, BRCA1 Protein, BRCA2 Protein, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Heterozygote, Humans, Male, Mutation, Prostatic Neoplasms, Risk

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Br J Cancer

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Cancer Research UK (S_3380)
Cancer Research UK (C12292/A22820)
Cancer Research UK (20861)
Cancer Research UK [grants C12292/A20861, C12292/A22820 and PPRPGM-Nov20\100002]; supported by the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.