Repository logo

Traumatic brain injury: integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research.

Accepted version



Change log


Maas, Andrew IR 
Menon, David K 
Adelson, P David 
Andelic, Nada 
Bell, Michael J 


A concerted effort to tackle the global health problem posed by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is long overdue. TBI is a public health challenge of vast, but insufficiently recognised, proportions. Worldwide, more than 50 million people have a TBI each year, and it is estimated that about half the world's population will have one or more TBIs over their lifetime. TBI is the leading cause of mortality in young adults and a major cause of death and disability across all ages in all countries, with a disproportionate burden of disability and death occurring in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). It has been estimated that TBI costs the global economy approximately $US400 billion annually. Deficiencies in prevention, care, and research urgently need to be addressed to reduce the huge burden and societal costs of TBI. This Commission highlights priorities and provides expert recommendations for all stakeholders—policy makers, funders, health-care professionals, researchers, and patient representatives—on clinical and research strategies to reduce this growing public health problem and improve the lives of people with TBI.



Brain Injuries, Brain Injuries, Traumatic, Humans

Journal Title

The Lancet Neurology

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



European Commission (602150)
Medical Research Council (G0600986)
Medical Research Council (G0601025)
TCC (None)
Medical Research Council (G0600986/1)
We acknowledge the support provided by the funding agencies joined in the InTBIR initiative: the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the European Commission, the US National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, One Mind, and the US Department of Defense. Additional support for Canadian studies within InTBIR was provided by Fonds de recherche du Québec Santé, the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, the Ontario Brain Institute, and the Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation. The Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) project received additional support from the Hannelore Kohl Stiftung, Germany. Synergistic funding for the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study was obtained through a successful application for a TBI Endpoints Development award from the US Department of Defense. In addition, DKM was supported through a Senior Investigator Award and funding for the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre from the UK National Institute for Health Research.