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Neuro-Inflammation Modulation and Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Lesions: From Bench to Bed-Side.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

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Authors

Jacquens, Alice 
Needham, Edward J 
Degos, Vincent 

Abstract

Head trauma is the most common cause of disability in young adults. Known as a silent epidemic, it can cause a mosaic of symptoms, whether neurological (sensory-motor deficits), psychiatric (depressive and anxiety symptoms), or somatic (vertigo, tinnitus, phosphenes). Furthermore, cranial trauma (CT) in children presents several particularities in terms of epidemiology, mechanism, and physiopathology-notably linked to the attack of an immature organ. As in adults, head trauma in children can have lifelong repercussions and can cause social and family isolation, difficulties at school, and, later, socio-professional adversity. Improving management of the pre-hospital and rehabilitation course of these patients reduces secondary morbidity and mortality, but often not without long-term disability. One hypothesized contributor to this process is chronic neuroinflammation, which could accompany primary lesions and facilitate their development into tertiary lesions. Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving different actors such as glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes), the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, excitotoxicity, production of oxygen derivatives, cytokine release, tissue damage, and neuronal death. Several studies have investigated the effect of various treatments on the neuroinflammatory response in traumatic brain injury in vitro and in animal and human models. The aim of this review is to examine the various anti-inflammatory therapies that have been implemented.

Description

Keywords

neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, therapeutics, traumatic brain injury, Animals, Brain, Brain Injuries, Traumatic, Child, Cytokines, Disease Models, Animal, Humans, Inflammation, Microglia, Oxygen

Journal Title

Int J Mol Sci

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

1661-6596
1422-0067

Volume Title

23

Publisher

MDPI AG