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Effects of contrast agents on relaxation properties of 31P metabolites.

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Valkovič, Ladislav  ORCID logo
Abdesselam, Ines 
Frollo, Ivan 


PURPOSE: Phosphorous MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) forms a powerful, non-invasive research tool to quantify the energetics of the heart in diverse patient populations. 31P-MRS is frequently applied alongside other radiological examinations, many of which use various contrast agents that shorten relaxation times of water in conventional proton MR, for a better characterisation of cardiac function, or following prior computed tomography (CT). It is, however, unknown whether these agents confound 31P-MRS signals, for example, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). METHODS: In this work, we quantitatively assess the impact of non-ionic, low osmolar iodinated CT contrast agent (iopamidol/Niopam), gadolinium chelates (linear gadopentetic acid dimeglumine/Magnevist and macrocyclic gadoterate meglumine/Dotarem) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ferumoxytol/Feraheme) on the nuclear T1 and T2 of 31P metabolites (ie, 2,3-DPG), and 1H in water in live human blood and saline phantoms at 11.7 T. RESULTS: Addition of all contrast agents led to significant shortening of all relaxation times in both 1H and 31P saline phantoms. On the contrary, the T1 relaxation time of 2,3-DPG in blood was significantly shortened only by Magnevist (P = .03). Similarly, the only contrast agent that influenced the T2 relaxation times of 2,3-DPG in blood samples was ferumoxytol (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Our results show that, unlike conventional proton MR, phosphorus MRS is unconfounded in patients who have had prior CT with contrast, not all gadolinium-based contrast agents influence 31P-MRS data in vivo, and that ferumoxytol is a promising contrast agent for the reduction in 31P-MRS blood-pool signal.



contrast agent, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, phosphorus‐31

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Magn Reson Med

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Wellcome Trust (Unknown)
Wellcome Trust (098436/Z/12/B)
CTR and LV thank the funding of a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (098436/Z/12/B). JJM would like to acknowledge the support of a Novo Nordisk Postdoctoral Fellowship and a Junior Research Fellowship at Wadham College Oxford. Authors also acknowledge the support of the British Heart Foundation (refs. FS/14/17/30634 and FS/16/7/31843). The support of the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA (grant #2/0003/20) and APVV (grant #19-0032) is acknowledged by LV and IF.