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SN 2015bn: A DETAILED MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW of A NEARBY SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA

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Peer-reviewed

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Article

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Abstract

jats:titleABSTRACT</jats:title> jats:pWe present observations of SN 2015bn (=PS15ae = CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) at redshift jats:italicz</jats:italic> = 0.1136. As well as being one of the closest SLSNe I yet discovered, it is intrinsically brighter (jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn1.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula>) and in a fainter galaxy (jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn2.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula>) than other SLSNe at jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn3.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula>. We used this opportunity to collect the most extensive data set for any SLSN I to date, including densely sampled spectroscopy and photometry, from the UV to the NIR, spanning −50 to +250 days from optical maximum. SN 2015bn fades slowly, but exhibits surprising undulations in the light curve on a timescale of 30–50 days, especially in the UV. The spectrum shows extraordinarily slow evolution except for a rapid transformation between +7 and +20–30 days. No narrow emission lines from slow-moving material are observed at any phase. We derive physical properties including the bolometric luminosity, and find slow velocity evolution and non-monotonic temperature and radial evolution. A deep radio limit rules out a healthy off-axis gamma-ray burst, and places constraints on the pre-explosion mass loss. The data can be consistently explained by a jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn4.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula> jats:italicM</jats:italic> jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn5.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula> stripped progenitor exploding with jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn6.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula> erg kinetic energy, forming a magnetar with a spin-down timescale of ∼20 days (thus avoiding a gamma-ray burst) that reheats the ejecta and drives ionization fronts. The most likely alternative scenario—interaction with ∼20 jats:italicM</jats:italic> jats:inline-formula jats:tex-math

</jats:tex-math> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="apjaa249dieqn7.gif" xlink:type="simple" /> </jats:inline-formula> of dense, inhomogeneous circumstellar material—can be tested with continuing radio follow-up.</jats:p>

Description

Keywords

supernovae: general, supernovae: individual (SN 2015bn)

Journal Title

Astrophysical Journal

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0004-637X
1538-4357

Volume Title

826

Publisher

American Astronomical Society
Sponsorship
European Research Council (320360)
S.J.S. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no [291222] and STFC grants ST/I001123/1 and ST/L000709/1. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE). Operation of the Pan-STARRS1 telescope is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX12AR65G and Grant No. NNX14AM74G issued through the NEO Observation Program. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant No. 307260, the Quantum universe I-Core programme by the Israeli Committee for Planning and Budgeting and the ISF; by Minerva and ISF grants; by the Weizmann-UK "making connections" programme; and by the Kimmel and YeS awards. B.D.M. is supported by NSF grant AST-1410950 and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Support for L.G. is provided by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009 awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), and CONICYT through FONDECYT grant 3140566. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. K.M. acknowledges support from the STFC through an Ernest Rutherford Fellowship. A.M. acknowledges funding from CNRS. Development of ASAS-SN has been supported by NSF grant AST-0908816 and CCAPP at the Ohio State University. ASAS-SN is supported by NSF grant AST-1515927, the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP) at OSU, the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, George Skestos, and the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund. B.S. is supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HF-51348.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. C.S.K. is supported by NSF grants AST-1515876 and AST-1515927. T.W.-S.H. is supported by the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, grant number DE-FG02-97ER25308. V.A.V. is supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. P.S.C. is grateful for support provided by the NSF through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program, grant DGE1144152. P.B. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1144152. D.A.H., C.M., and G.H. are supported by NSF grant 1313484.