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Carbon Nanotubes as an Ultrafast Emitter with a Narrow Energy Spread at Optical Frequency

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Li, C 
Zhou, X 
Zhai, F 
Li, Z 
Yao, F 


Ultrafast electron pulses, combined with laser-pump and electron-probe technologies, allow ultrafast dynamics to be characterized in materials. However, the pursuit of simultaneous ultimate spatial and temporal resolution of microscopy and spectroscopy is largely subdued by the low monochromaticity of the electron pulses and their poor phase synchronization to the optical excitation pulses. Field-driven photoemission from metal tips provides high light-phase synchronization, but suffers large electron energy spreads (3–100 eV) as driven by a long wavelength laser (>800 nm). Here, ultrafast electron emission from carbon nanotubes (≈1 nm radius) excited by a 410 nm femtosecond laser is realized in the field-driven regime. In addition, the emitted electrons have great monochromaticity with energy spread as low as 0.25 eV. This great performance benefits from the extraordinarily high field enhancement and great stability of carbon nanotubes, superior to metal tips. The new nanotube-based ultrafast electron source opens exciting prospects for extending current characterization to sub-femtosecond temporal resolution as well as sub-nanometer spatial resolution.



carbon nanotubes, ultrafast photoemission, monochromatic, field-driven, electron sources

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Advanced Materials

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This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (grant no. 2016YFA0202000, 2015CB932400, 2016YFA0300903), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 11427808, 51372045, 11474006, 5152220, and 91433102), the International Science and Technology Cooperation Project (no. 2014DFR10780, China), the Academy of Finland (grant no: 276376, 284548, 295777, and 304666), TEKES (OPEC), Nokia foundation, the Oppenheimer Trust, and the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (grant no: 631610).