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How butterflies keep their cool: Physical and ecological traits influence thermoregulatory ability and population trends.

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Buckton, Sam J 
Corbett, Stuart 


Understanding which factors influence the ability of individuals to respond to changing temperatures is fundamental to species conservation under climate change. We investigated how a community of butterflies responded to fine-scale changes in air temperature, and whether species-specific responses were predicted by ecological or morphological traits. Using data collected across a UK reserve network, we investigated the ability of 29 butterfly species to buffer thoracic temperature against changes in air temperature. First, we tested whether differences were attributable to taxonomic family, morphology or habitat association. We then investigated the relative importance of two buffering mechanisms: behavioural thermoregulation versus fine-scale microclimate selection. Finally, we tested whether species' responses to changing temperatures predicted their population trends from a UK-wide dataset. We found significant interspecific variation in buffering ability, which varied between families and increased with wing length. We also found interspecific differences in the relative importance of the two buffering mechanisms, with species relying on microclimate selection suffering larger population declines over the last 40 years than those that could alter their temperature behaviourally. Our results highlight the importance of understanding how different species respond to fine-scale temperature variation, and the value of taking microclimate into account in conservation management to ensure favourable conditions are maintained for temperature-sensitive species.



behavioural thermoregulation, butterflies, climate change, generalist, microclimate, population trends, specialist, temperature, Animals, Body Temperature Regulation, Butterflies, Climate Change, Cold Temperature, Ecosystem, Temperature

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J Anim Ecol

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Isaac Newton Trust (12.21(a)i)
Isaac Newton Trust/Wellcome Trust ISSF/University of Cambridge Joint Research Grants Scheme RG89529 The Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire The J Arthur Ramsay Trust Fund European Research Council advanced grant 669609
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