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Three-dimensional black-blood T2 mapping with compressed sensing and data-driven parallel imaging in the carotid artery.

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Yuan, Jianmin 
Usman, Ammara 
Reid, Scott A 
King, Kevin F 
Patterson, Andrew J 


PURPOSE: To develop a 3D black-blood T2 mapping sequence with a combination of compressed sensing (CS) and parallel imaging (PI) for carotid wall imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D black-blood fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence for T2 mapping with CS and PI was developed and validated. Phantom experiments were performed to assess T2 accuracy using a Eurospin Test Object, with different combination of CS and PI acceleration factors. A 2D multi-echo FSE sequence was used as a reference to evaluate the accuracy. The concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman statistics were calculated. Twelve volunteers were scanned twice to determine the repeatability of the sequence and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was reported. Wall-lumen sharpness was calculated for different CS and PI combinations. Six patients with carotid stenosis >50% were scanned with optimised sequence. The T2 maps were compared with multi-contrast images. RESULTS: Phantom scans showed good correlation in T2 measurement between current and reference sequence (r=0.991). No significant difference was found between different combination of CS and PI accelerations (p=0.999). Volunteer scans showed good repeatability of T2 measurement (ICC: 0.93, 95% CI 0.84-0.97). The mean T2 of the healthy wall was 48.0±9.5ms. Overall plaque T2 values from patients were 54.9±12.2ms. Recent intraplaque haemorrhage and fibrous tissue have higher T2 values than the mean plaque T2 values (88.1±6.8ms and 62.7±9.3ms, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining CS and PI for accelerating 3D T2 mapping in the carotid artery, with accurate T2 measurements and good repeatability.



Carotid imaging, Compressed sensing, Parallel imaging, T(2) mapping, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Carotid Arteries, Carotid Stenosis, Feasibility Studies, Female, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Phantoms, Imaging, Reproducibility of Results, Young Adult

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Magn Reson Imaging

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Elsevier BV
TCC (None)
British Heart Foundation (None)
British Heart Foundation (None)
European Commission (224297)
The project was supported by the Addenbrooke's Charitable Trust and the NIHR comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with the University of Cambridge.