Item Published version Open AccessRailroads and Regional Economies in Uruguay, c. 1910Travieso, Emiliano; Travieso Barrios, Emiliano [0000-0002-6692-7680]In the decades prior to the First World War Uruguayan incomes, fuelled by rising international prices for beef and wool, achieved levels similar to France’s and Germany’s, and vastly superior to those of Mediterranean Europe and all of the Southern Hemisphere, except the other three major ‘settler economies’ of Australia, Argentina, and New Zealand. These gains, however, were not evenly distributed within Uruguay. Railway transportation and domestic market integration reinforced narrow specialisation patterns and regional inequalities which persist to this day, with the southern coast of the country being significantly better-off than the north and north-east. This paper traces the origins of these patterns back to the era of export-led growth under the First Globalization. Evidence is reconstructed from freight traffic from the 152 train stations in the country to identify spatial clustering of economic activities, moving the unit of analysis away from the 19 provinces (departamentos) which make up Uruguay’s administrative divisions. This allows for a far more detailed benchmark of Uruguayan regional economies than previously available. Relying on geostatistical analysis and theoretical insights from the New Economic Geography, I propose a possible economic regionalization of Uruguay circa 1910. Item Accepted version Open AccessStructures and Social Order in a Medieval Italian Monastery and Village: Architecture and Experience in Villamagna(Archaeopress Publishing, 2018-05-23) Goodson, CJ; Goodson, Caroline [0000-0003-2925-2984]The recent excavations at Villamagna (FR), Italy, have revealed the monumental remains of a monastery and abbey church of the tenth to thirteenth centuries, and the contemporary village where the monastery’s estate workers lived. These were all situated within the ruins of a substantial imperial Roman villa known as Villa Magna, an ancient name preserved through the middle ages. These different structures of medieval Villamagna provide a pertinent case study to explore how the differing topography, construction technique and quality, and uses of buildings in a given community over time might have been experienced by the people who lived there and used them. Italian medieval archaeology, as a discipline and community of scholars, brings a Marxian approach to interpreting sites like these, and the assumptions brought to bear in Italian contexts might be usefully juxtaposed with the approaches of other subsets of our disciplines. Item Open AccessTrading in War: London’s Maritime World in the Age of Cook and Nelson(Informa UK Limited, 2019-01-02) Caputo, Sara; Caputo, Sara [0000-0002-5044-7594] Item Accepted version Open AccessTaking another look at the Pastoral Eye. New insights based upon a second copy of the Oculus pastoralis(Editions Scientifiques E Story Scientia, 2018-04-23) Napolitano, DPH; Napolitano, David [0000-0003-1474-090X]This article focuses on the opening text of a miscellany held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (Paris, BNF, lat. 4686). Upon closer examination the text turns out to be a missing copy of the Oculus pastoralis, untapped by the three editors of the text whose editions are all based upon a single copy (Cleveland (Ohio, USA), Public Library, Wq 789.0921 M-C 37). This article aims to broaden the awareness of the existence of this second copy within the scholarly community. In addition, it intends to demonstrate that this witness profoundly alters our current understanding of the structure, contents and composition of the Oculus pastoralis. Item Published version Open AccessBrunetto Latini’s Politica: A Political Rewriting of Giovanni da Viterbo’s De Regimine Civitatum(Firenze University Press) Napolitano, DPH; Napolitano, David [0000-0003-1474-090X]It is generally accepted that the final section of Brunetto Latini’s Li Livres dou Tresor, known as his Politica, is largely based upon Giovanni da Viterbo’s De regimine civitatum. Notwithstanding this agreement on the derivative relationship between both texts, Latini’s Politica continues to puzzle scholars. Based upon a historically informed textual comparison and analysis this article argues that the amount of intervention by Brunetto Latini – and its coherence in direction – is highly instructive on the originality of Latini’s rewriting and indicative of its purpose. Finally, this article sheds light on the historical factors underlying Latini’s decision to select Giovanni da Viterbo’s manual as his copy-text. Item Accepted version Open AccessBishop Bartholomew of Exeter (d. 1184) and the heresy of astrology(Cambridge University Press) Runciman, DIn the late twelfth century, Bartholomew, bishop of Exeter (1161-84), identified astrology as the most serious heresy facing the English Church. The evidence of Bartholomew’s writing suggests that astrology became more widely accepted among the English clergy during his episcopal tenure. It also supports the view that popular heretical movements enjoyed little success in England during this period, in contrast to some regions in mainland Europe. Instead, it was scholars deemed guilty of intellectual error, and above all the astrologers, who became the focus of Bartholomew’s anxieties about heresy and the intellectual culture of his day. Item Accepted version Open AccessBordering and frontier-making in nineteenth-century British India(Cambridge University Press, 2015-06-05) Simpson, ThomasFrom the 1820s to the 1850s, the British Indian state undertook its final major phase of expansion to assume the approximate geographical extent it retained until its demise in 1947. It confronted at its north-eastern and north-western outskirts seemingly intractable mountains, deserts, and jungles inhabited by apparently stateless ‘tribal’ peoples. In its various attempts to comprehend and deal with these human and material complexities, the colonial state undertook projects of spatial engagement that were often confused and ineffective. Efforts to produce borders and frontier areas to mark the limits of administered British India were rarely authoritative and were reworked by colonial officials and local inhabitants alike. Bringing together diverse examples of bordering and territory-making from peripheral regions of South Asia that are usually treated separately lays bare the limits of the colonial state’s power and its ambivalent attitude towards spatial forms and technologies that are conventionally taken to be key foundations of modern states. These cases also intervene in the burgeoning political geography literature on boundary-making, suggesting that borders and the territories they delimit are not stable objects but complex and fragmented entities, performed and contested by dispersed agencies and therefore prone to endless fluctuation. Item Accepted version Open AccessIntroduction: approaching space in intellectual history(Informa UK Limited, 2018-05-04) Allemann, Daniel S; Jäger, Anton; Mann, ValentinaThis article serves as an introduction to the special issue on Conceptions of Space in Intellectual History. It opens with a brief inquiry into the place of ‘space’, both as a topic and as an analytical lens, in the field of intellectual history. The remainder of the introduction suggests a pathway through the special issue. Under three broad headings – ‘territory,’ ‘oceans and empire’, and ‘geopolitics’ – the volume’s articles are presented, brought into dialogue, and situated within a wider trajectory of recent research on conceptions of ‘space’ in intellectual history. Item Accepted version Open AccessTCBH Duncan Tanner Essay Prize Winner 2017: The 'Progress of a Slogan': Youth, Culture, and the Shaping of Everyday Political Languages in Late 1940s Britain.(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018-09-01) Cowan, DavidIn 1948, worried that young people would take full employment and the welfare state for granted, the Labour Party trialled a new slogan: 'Ask your Dad'. This slogan encouraged the young to learn about the hardships which their parents had experienced in the inter-war years, largely under Conservative governments. Using archived interviews and letters sent to the press, this article provides the first study of the popular reception of this slogan. Most people had not heard of this slogan, and most of those who had heard of the phrase showed no knowledge that it was associated with politics, turning instead to popular culture. Those who understood the slogan were not the passive conduits of their party's message; often, they reworked political ideas to fit their own memories. Because repeating slogans was associated with a lack of political independence, not listening to party politics could conceal an intense interest in creating political change-an attitude which was, apparently, pronounced amongst the young. This article uses these responses to suggest how political language was as much produced by ordinary people's memories and daily discussion, as it was something drawn from professional campaigners. Item Published version Open AccessBy-Employments in Early Modern England and Their Significance for Estimating Historical Male Occupational Structures(Cambridge Working Papers in Economic and Social History, 2017-03-31) Keibek, Sebastiaan; Keibek, Sebastiaan [0000-0002-6097-8196]Based on the evidence from probate inventories, by-employments have generally been presumed ubiquitous amongst early modern Englishmen. This would appear to present a significant problem for estimates of the contemporary male occupational structure, since the sources on which these estimates are based describe men almost always by their principal employment only. This paper argues that this problem is vanishingly small, for three reasons. Firstly, the probate inventory evidence is shown to exaggerate the incidence of by-employments by a factor of two, as a consequence of its inherent wealth bias. Secondly, it is demonstrated that even after wealth-bias correction, the probate record greatly overstates by-employment incidence as most of the traces of subsidiary activities in the inventories actually point to the employments of other members of the household, not to by-employments of the inventoried male household head. Thirdly, even if one ignored this and assumed that they did, in fact, point to his by-employments, they are shown to have been relatively small in economic importance compared to the principal employment, and to necessitate only a very minor adjustment of the principal-employment-only male occupational structure. Item Accepted version Open AccessWilliam of Malmesbury and fortuna(Taylor & Francis, 2018-01) Forster, TS; Forster, Tom [0000-0002-8888-9515]The great Benedictine historian William of Malmesbury has divided scholarly interpretation over recent decades. For some, William was a precocious scholarly talent who steered around or subverted the constraining absurdities of the providential orthodoxy. For others, his explicit expressions of faith in God’s providence, despite its often vexatious reverses, betray a sincere piety and reverence for the hidden justice of divine cosmic rationality. These conclusions have relied on flawed assessments of William’s use of the term fortuna, fortune. They adhere to a broader status quo that imagines all medieval thinkers took for granted that fortune’s reverses were inscrutable and inevitable. On the contrary, this article argues that William was concerned with determining the precise causes of fortune, so that he might prescribe ethical advice to prevent its reverses. This has consequences for understanding the ends of twelfth-century historical writing and the development of thought pertaining to individual and collective punishments. Item Accepted version Open AccessRelics, writing, and memory in the English Counter Reformation: Thomas Maxfield and his afterlives(Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018) Walsham, A; Walsham, Alexandra [0000-0002-9926-2582]This article explores the multiple and competing afterlives of the Jacobean martyr, Thomas Maxfield, who was executed at Tyburn in July 1616. It traces the evolution of his cult between the seventeenth and twenty-first centuries by exploring the migration of his relics alongside the movements of the written and printed texts recounting his life and death. It investigates the domestic and international politics in which these textual and material remains circulated and illuminates the making and metamorphosis of social memory in the English Counter Reformation. It sheds fresh light on how Maxfield’s relics served both to bind this imagined community together and to divide and fragment it. Highlighting the interweaving of devotion and scholarship, antiquarianism and piety, it also argues that relic collecting must be recognised as part of the wider contemporary enterprises of religious record-keeping and writing sacred history. Item Accepted version Open AccessToleration, Pluralism, and Coexistence: The Ambivalent Legacies of the Reformation(Penguin Random House Verlagsgruppe GmbH, 2017) Walsham, A; Walsham, Alexandra [0000-0002-9926-2582]One of the enduring myths of the origins of modern Western liberalism to which we still cling, albeit unconsciously, is the tradition of linking the Reformation with the rise of toleration. The notion that Protestantism helped to sow the seeds for advanced ideas of freedom of conscience and laid the foundations for practical arrangements that facilitated the acceptance of religious diversity is part of another resilient paradigm: the story of the Reformation’s role as an agent of progress and as a stepping stone towards the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Integral to the teleological tale of how the values we believe to be central to our civilisation came into being, it is also deeply entwined with the patriotic narratives that underpin Anglo-American senses of national identity. It entails an element of self-satisfaction and self-congratulation that is profoundly at odds with the rampant and pervasive intolerance that lurks under the surface of twenty-first-century society and increasingly erupts into public view. Ironically, especially in Britain, this whiggish myth also embodies and perpetuates a related prejudice: the latent anti-Catholicism enshrined in the black legend of the intolerant medieval Inquisition and of the scheming Jesuits, in the lingering memory of the Protestant martyrs burnt during the reign of Queen Mary I, and in accounts of the constitutional coup that excluded a Catholic monarch from the throne which we continue to christen the ‘Glorious Revolution’. Item Accepted version Open AccessParliamentary Scrutiny of Aid Spending: The Case of the Global Challenges Research Fund(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019) Manji, A; Mandler, P; Mandler, Peter [0000-0003-0619-171X]This paper argues that the UK is now facing an increasingly complex aid landscape and that this poses significant problems for parliamentary scrutiny. It explores one of the most important ODA innovations of recent years, the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). The fund constitutes a significant investment of Official Development Assistance (ODA) money in research. The GCRF provides an important case study of changing aid spending. The paper locates the GCRF in the wider context of UK aid over the past two decades and considers the wider parliamentary scrutiny and accountability issues to which aid-funded research gives rise. Item Accepted version Open AccessScotland, Scottishness, British Integration and the Royal Navy, 1793-1815(Edinburgh University Press, 2018) Caputo, S; Caputo, Sara [0000-0002-5044-7594]With few exceptions, existing research in British social and maritime history has never focused on the presence and role of Scotsmen in the Royal Navy of the French Wars era (1793-1815), on their identification and self-presentation within this institution, and on attitudes towards naval warfare in Scotland more generally. Situating the problem within current debates on ‘four nations’ history and the development of British identity, this article aims to fill this gap. It will consider, in turn, the Navy's institutional language and practices, individual experiences, and, chiefly employing as a case study the 1797 victory of Camperdown, achieved by the Scottish Admiral Duncan, public representations in the Scottish press. This will help to illustrate the often ambiguous relationship that Scots in the Navy – and particularly on the quarterdeck – could have with their homeland, and the powerful attraction, reinforced by the naval environment and administrative structures, which Englishness exerted on them. More broadly, it will be shown how the late Hanoverian Navy, as a markedly Anglo-centric institution, acted as a key instrument of cultural, social and political assimilation of Scots into Britain, thus offering a valuable case study for an investigation of patterns of British integration. Item Open AccessReview of Helen Watt and Anne Hawkins (eds), Letters of Seamen in the Wars with France 1793-1815 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2016)Caputo, Sara; Caputo, Sara [0000-0002-5044-7594]Book review. Item Accepted version Open AccessThe language of social science in everyday life(SAGE Publications, 2019) Mandler, P; Mandler, P [0000-0003-0619-171X]An ethnographic or ethnomethodological turn in the history of the human sciences has been a Holy Grail at least since Cooter and Pumphrey called for it in 1994, but it has been little realized in practice. This article sketches out some ways to explore the reception, use and/or co-production of scientific knowledge using material generated by mediators such as mass-market paperbacks, radio, TV and especially newspapers. It then presents some preliminary findings, tracing the prevalence and, to a lesser extent, use of selected social-science concepts in the USA and the UK from the 1930s to the 1970s. Item Published version Open Access"The Important and Unfamiliar": Richard Hofstadter's The American Political Tradition(Transaction Publishers) Snodgrass, ARThis paper addresses the continued association of Richard Hofstadter with consensus history. More specifically, it challenges the view that the origins of this conservative trend in American history can be located within The American Political Tradition. Whilst primarily concerned with reinterpreting Hofstadter’s work within its original context, the paper raises questions regarding author intention and both the reception and shifting perceptions of works of history. Item Accepted version Open AccessAnti-slave-trade Law, ‘Liberated Africans’, and the State in the South Atlantic World, c. 1839 – 52(Oxford University Press, 2018-11-01) Richards, Jake ChristopherFrom 1807 onwards, bilateral slave-trade treaties stipulated how naval squadrons would rescue slaves from slave ships, and how states should arrange the settlement and apprenticeship of these slaves, to transform them into ‘liberated Africans’. Comparing interactions between the state and liberated Africans at sea along the South African and Brazilian coasts, and in the port towns of Cape Town and Salvador, reveals how the legal status of liberated Africans changed over time. Current scholarship has framed liberated Africans in terms of whether they were attributed rights or suffered re-enslavement, and thus focused on their solidarity through claiming rights, ‘ethnic survivals’ or creolization. Instead, this paper argues anti-slave-trade legislation ascribed to liberated Africans a set of unguaranteed entitlements – promises regarding status and treatment without obligating states to uphold that status or treatment. By focusing on the precise aspects of legislation that operated at each point in the process of anti-slave-trade activity – rescuing slaves from slave ships, transportation to a port, processing through a court, and apprenticeship – this paper unearths how the law came into force in the encounter between state officials and liberated Africans, as part of the complex transition from slavery to free labour. Item Accepted version Open AccessSustaining “the Household of Faith”: Female Hospitality in the Early Transatlantic Quaker Community(Brill) Pullin, NR; Pullin, Naomi [0000-0002-1554-4356]Women occupied a central place in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century transatlantic Quakerism. They acted as prophets, missionaries, authors and spiritual leaders of their communities. Recent scholarship has offered important insights into the unparalleled public roles available to women within the early Quaker community. But little is known about the networks of hospitality that developed across the Atlantic that made itinerant missionary service possible. The generosity of countless female Quakers to unknown "Friends" remains an underexplored aspect of early Quaker history. Using printed spiritual testimonies and correspondence exchanged between Quaker missionaries and their female hosts, this article shows how ministers were "sustained" during their travels. Active religious service did not have to equate to ministerial work, and networks of female hospitality provided an important accompaniment to the national and transatlantic Quaker mission.