Item Open AccessDolgan Lidzhiev, a legend about the origin of the Chonos clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-09-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Terbish, Baasanjav Item Open AccessAndrei Boskhomdzhiev, About the origin of Chonos clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-11-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Korneev, Gennadiy; Bembeev, Aleksandr Item Open AccessVladimir Kartulinov, about the Tsoros(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-12-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Koldaev, TserenOne of Vladimir’s ancestors was a man called Gesha. Gesha’s son was Tsom, whose son was Kartul, whose son was Shipil, whose son was Mandzhi. Madzhi was Vladimir’s father. Vladimir belongs to the Tsoros clan. The Tsoros has several sub-clans, including Sharyad, Tarachnr, Sogtu and Dund. Sharyad were fishermen, whereas Tarachnr were agriculturalists. Dund are people who joined the Tsoros later. The village of Tsoros was populous in the past. Item Open AccessPetr Darvaev, About the origin of Derben (dorvn) Oirat(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-11-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumov, Anton; Korneev, Gennadiy; Bembeev, AleksandrPetr says that the name Derben Oirat derives from the phrase ‘four close tribes’ that lived in the Altai region. Each of the tribes had their own totemic animal, including the crow, the swan, the wolf and the deer. The crow and the swan are heavenly creatures symbolising the sun and the moon, whereas the wolf and the deer are earthly animals. The tribes with whom the Derbet Oirat exchanged brides were referred to as tyurkyut, meaning ‘relatives’. Item Open AccessMaria Erendzhenova, About Dund Khurul(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-12-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Mandzhiev, Sanal; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonMaria is from the clan of Dund Khurul, which consists of several sub-clans or lineages. Her father was from the sub-clan of Iki-Bargas, whereas her husband is from that of Baga-Bargas. The Dund Khurul people live in several villages, including Ungun-Teryachi (means ‘Lost Foal’) and Khanata (derives its name from a nearby lake). Item Open AccessLyudmila Sarangova, history of Khar-Buluk(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2015-07-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Terbish, BaasanjavLyudmila says that the village of Yarta was established in 1865 near the village of Khar-Buluk. In 1943, the villagers, along with the rest of the Kalmyk population, were sent into exile. After exile, the villagers rebuilt their village in a new location which was a post station in 1911. They named it Khar-Buluk, meaning ‘a clear spring’ in Kalmyk. Near the village is a sacred place locally known as the ‘Lonely Poplar’ where grows a poplar tree planted about 150 years ago by the famous Kalmyk monk Purdash. Item Open AccessLev Antonov, About people from Bolshoi Derbet(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-10-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Bembeev, AleksandrLev talks about Kalmyks from Bolsherebetovskiy ulus whom he characterizes as ‘quite Russified’. He says that this was because local Kalmyks lived side by side with Germans, Estonians, Russians and Cossacks from whom they borrowed many things. Bolshederbetovkiy ulus was also home to Buzavas, Kumsk Kalmyks and Tersk Kalmyks who arrived there in the 1920s. Item Open AccessIvan Ulyumdzhiev, sayings about the Ulduchin(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-08-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonIvan explains a Kalmyk saying about the village of Uldyuchin: ‘If you are planning to die, go to Uldyuchin’. This saying has the following story. Once upon a time, two Torghut men set out on a journey to Stavropol to sell salt. On the way one of them got very sick and decided to say in Uldyuchin where the locals looked after him well. When the man died, the locals buried him properly with all required honors. Since then people in Kalmykia say that ‘if you are planning to die, go to Uldyuchin’. Item Open AccessIvan Ulyumdzhiev, about the pastures of the Ulduchin clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-08-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonIvan says that each arvn (lineage) of the Ulduchin clan had its pastureland. For example, Shotkud arvn lived in the area of Lake Purvyan-Nur, while Duralmud arvn lived near Lake Bukhyn-Nur. Historically, the Uldyuchin land included the following places as well: Khulstyn-Nur, Kelkyan-Sala, Mangdyn-Sala and others. The Ulduchin clan had its own temple which was built near a hill. Item Open AccessIvan Ulyumdzhiev, about the origin of the Ulduchin-Khoyt clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-08-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonIvan says the following: Despite being of a Khoyt origin, the Uldyuchin clan is today considered to be a part of the Bag-Derbet clan. After the Khoyts come to the Lower Volga, some of them settled among the Derbets, putting the foundation of the Uldyuchin clan. The Uldyuchin clan today consist of 23 arvn (lineages). The clan’s banner has the depiction of Daichin-Tengri (god of war) on one side and a flying bird holding a sword on the other. In Kalmyk the word ‘uldyuchin’ means ‘sword bearers’. When the Kalmyks were exiled in 1943-1956, the banner was kept by one old Uldyuchin woman who was exiled to Siberia. Item Open AccessGennadiy Korneev, About the etymology of Derbet(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2017-10-01) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Churyumov, AntonGennadiy says that according to one version, the ethnonym Derbet derives from the word derbuljin, meaning ‘a square’. According to yet another version, it derives from the word durbot, ‘a nomadic camp’ that belonged to Ulinda-Budan-Taisha. Item Open AccessOleg Kalykov, about the Baga-Chonos clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2019-05-05) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton; Sandzhiev, ArturOleg says that Chonos is an ancient clan. They served as vanguard troops in Chingis Khan’s army when he besieged Beijing. The Chonos people came to the Volga as part of the Derbets who in their turn followed the Torghuts. The Chonos clan was led by the zaisang Galzu-Basu. The Baga-Chonos consists of 8 arvans. Item Open AccessMingiyan Lidzhiev, about the Derbet ulus(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2019-05-05) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Korneev, Gennadiy; Bembeev, Aleksandr; Sandzhiev, ArturMingiyan provides a detailed account of the Derbets and their composition: In the past, among the Derbets there lived another large tribe called Tugtun. As the population of the Tugtun grew, the tribe was divided into several clans, including Khorkha-Tugtun, Tugtun-Taltakhin, Tugtun-Shungurtsgakhin, Tugtun-Kaaknakhin, and Tugtun-Saarlakhin. Salyn-Tugtun, by contrast, settled apart from the rest of their clansmen, along the Sal River. Salyn-Tugtun in its turn consists of Tugtun-Lyagir, Tugtun-Shosholdakhin, Salyn-Tugtun and Tugtun-Dogzmakhin, each of which is further divided into smaller units. Tugtun-Lyagir has the following origin. In the past a wealthy Russian, who was a horse dealer, set up a camp where he hired people of the Salyn-Tugtun clan. The Kalmyks pronounced the Russian word for camp as ‘lyagir’, hence Tugtun-Lyagir. Tugtun-Dogzmakhin received their named from Prince Dogzma who was their ruler. The Derbets also include Shebiner which comprises three clans: Iki-Khurla Shebiner, Dundu-Khurla Shebiner, and Baga-Khurla Shebiner. These three clans have the following story. Once a prince divided his subjects into three groups. He himself retained a group who came to be known as Iki-Khurla Shebiner. His two sons were the founders of Dundu-Khurla Shebiner and Baga-Khurla Shebiner respectively. Dundu-Khurla Shebiner, for example, consists of sixteen arvan units. Among them are Bergyas-Shonos and Mu-Chonos. Other clans comprising the Shebiner are Iki-Manlakhin, Baga-Manlakhin, Iki-Bukhus, Baga-Bukhus, Elstin-Bagshin-Shebiner. Tavan-Abganer consist of five arvans: Noynakhin, Aavikhin, Altsyngud-Barun, Ketchener and Asmud. Amon the Derbets there is also a clan called Zed. Baga-Chonos (aimak) consists of eight clans, including Sharnud who also live among the Deed Lamin clan in the village of Arshan-Zelmen. Byudyurmis and Khashkhaner live in Upper Yashkul. Orgakin was founded by those who fled from the Dugtun-Shungurtsgakhin clan. Tavan-Burul people live not far from the village of Orgakin. Tavan-Burul consists of the following arvans: Iki-Burul, Baga-Burul, Kovyudyakhin, Dzhedzhikhin and Mandzhikhin. All these clans and arvan units belong to Baga-Derbet. In contrast, Iki-Derbet people live on the other side of the Manych Lake and have a similar composition. Item Open AccessKonstantin Naktanov, about the Bagud clan(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2016-06-14) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumov, Anton; Gedeeva, Darina; Churyumov, AntonIn this interview Konstantin talks about the history and composition of the Bagud clan.Konstantin: Our clan, Bagud, descends from the younger brother of Ayuka Khan. Ayuka Khan had many sons, and his youngest son was Galdan Danzhin who contested with his older brother for the throne. After an unsuccessful assassination attempt on his older brother, Galdan Danzhin fled to a place near Saratov. He ordered his subjects not to reveal their affiliation but to say that they simply were people ‘of the youngest brother’. Bagud means ‘youngest’ in Kalmyk. In fact, we belong to the larger clan of Keryad which consists of Iki Keryad, Bag Keryad, Keryad and Bagud. Galdan Danzhin had three sons: his oldest son was Batla, the middle son was Doida, and the youngest was Erdni. When half of the Kalmyks returned to Dzungaria in 1771, Erdni was among them. Today his descendants live in a place called Xing in Xinjiang. In Kalmykia the Batla people lived in Batlayevskaya stanitsa. Doida, who moved to Lagan, had two sons, namely Khavtkha and Sharsa. Sharsa’s mother was a Tatar woman. When his two sons started to quarrel to inherit their father’s title, Doida, an old man by then, divided his people into three groups. The descendants of these three groups came to be known as Ik Bagud, Shars Bagud and Doida Bagud. There is another group among us called Shine Bagud (meaning ‘New Bagud’) who joined us later, and worshipped our gods. Question: Which sub-group do you belong to? Konstantin: I am from Doida Bagud. Inside we divide into arvn groupings, including the Arshakhn, Manzhikhn, Khamrakhn and Chavgakhn. I am from the Khamrakhn arvn. In the past, the arvns lived together. Even today in Lagan our street is home to Khamrakhn people. The next street is where Arshakhn people live. We know each other from childhood. When we started school, I remember children asking each other: ‘Which arvn are you from?’ Item Open AccessPavel Antonov and others, about the Derbets(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2015-04-30) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumova, ElviraIn this video three Derbet individuals, Pavel Antonov, Baatr Mandzhiev and Nadezhda Badmaeva, talk about the Derbet tribe/clan. Pavel Antonov: In 1771 when Ubashi Khan took the majority of Kalmyks back to Dzungaria (China), the Derbets who stayed in Russia divided into two groups: Iki Derbet (Big Derbet) and Bag Derbet (Small Derbet). I am from Baga Derbet. In the past, I spoke to our scholars about the origin of the Khashkh aimak. The Kalmyk Andrei Mitirov said to me that in our clan we had Uyghurs. When the Kalmyks first came here to the Volga from Dzungaria, they brought with them several Uyghur families. That is why we have their blood in our clan. We have a stamp in our clan that looks like a Muslim sign. Baatr Mandzhiev: If we talk about where the Derbets come from, we came to this place more than 400 years ago from Dzungaria. In Dzungaria there was a union of four Oirat tribes, including the Derbets, Torghuts, Khoshuds and Elyuts. The Derbets were the most numerous. Upon their arrival here, they divided into two groups, Big and Small Derbets. Some people say that the wealthy who split became Big Derbets, and those who remained became Small Derbets. Nadezhda Badmaeva: The Kalmyks consist of three groups, including the Derbets, Torghuts and Buzavas. The Derbets in their turn consist of Iki and Bag Derbets. The latter live in the northern part of Kalmykia, in Oktyabrskiy, Sarpinskiy and Ketchenerovskiy rayons. Our village, which is called Iki-Bukhus, is home to several arvn groupings, including the Syatud, Khoonud, Ik Bat, Bichkn Bat, Buurl, Serksh, Mangd. Among them the Khoonud, Ik Bat, and Syadud are the most numerous. Other arvn people are less numerous, and they also live in the neighboring villages. In general, we have many Derbets in Kalmykia, although our literary language is based on the Torghut dialect. The Buzavas live close to the Kazakhs and Russians. One can position the Derbets between the Buzavas and Torghuts. In our village, we support each other and live in friendship. Among the Derbets there are many people who sing songs and dance. There are many famous people who were born in our village, including the mathematician Pyurvya Erdniev, the Jangar singers Vladimir Karuev and Kutlan Mukubenov, the singer and songwriter Bovush Ambekova. We all love our village, and often participate in various competitions. Item Open AccessNikolai Oshaev, About Lamyn Arvn (Lineage)(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2016-08-11) Terbish, Baasanjav; Terbish, Baasanjav; Andrei BabevNikolai talks about his clan, its history, place of habitat and famous people from his clan (including the lama Baazra bagshi, the lama Zhizhetn bagshi, and others). This is his story: I, Nikolai Edlyaevich Oshaev, am from Lamyn arvn (grouping) of the Shabiner clan of Dundu Khurul. I would like to tell you about my arvn, which descends from three brothers. Our Lamyn arvn (meaning ‘arvn of lamas’) derives its name from the fact that many lamas came out from our arvn. The Khambo Lama of Three Hundred Disciples, who was from our arvn, built the Dundu Khurul Temple. The most famous among our lamas was Baazra bagshi. He was born in 1846. When he was six, his father sent him to a temple. Being a smart student, Baazra was quickly promoted. In 1891 he travelled to Tibet, taking with him a document that had been brought to Kalmykia by Zhizhetn 135 years earlier. A person who had this document was obliged to travel to Tibet for an audience with the Dalai Lama three times in seven years. So, with this document Baazra bagshi came to see the Dalai Lama XIII. In the two years that he spent in Tibet Baazra bagshi visited all major temples, making notes of his travel. In Tibet Baazra bagshi was acknowledged as the reincarnation of Tsongkapa and received gifts, including 103 volumes of Ganjur, from the Dalai Lama. Baazra bagshi boarded the boat ‘Saratov’ in China that took the route Singapore – Constantinople – Odessa. In Odessa he got on a train to Sarepta from where he arrived in Kalmykia. Based on his journey notebooks, he wrote a book, which was printed in Russian by Andrei Pozdneev in 1896. Following the publication of this book, Baazra bagshi was elected a member of the Russian Geographical Society. In 1902 Baazra bagshi sent his robe to the exhibition of traditional dresses held in St Petersburg, after which his dress was handed over to the Russian Museum in the same city. For his contribution to the exhibition Baazra bagshi received a Silver Medal. After the Bolshevik takeover of the power, Dundu Khurul was headed by three lamas, all from Lamyn arvn, including Suuman Gavsh bagshi, Monkin Bor bagshi and Ovsh Ernzhene bagshi. There were many famous people from Dundu Khurul. For example, Gavril Davaev joined the Red Army in 1939, and fought in the Far East, for which he received the Medal of Red Star and the Medal of the First Rank. After the war, in 1947 he went to Siberia in search of his family (in 1943 the Kalmyk people were sent into exile to Central Asia and Siberia). When the Kalmyks were allowed to return to Kalmykia, in 1957 Gavril Davaev worked as the director of a secondary school, and in 1963 he became an Honoured Teacher. Another famous people from Dundu Khurul are the writer Aleksei Badmaev, the Hero of Socialist Labour Gakha Andreev, the receiver of all three Medals of Glory Khutsa Sandzhiev, the receiver of the Medal of Red Banner of Labour Donda Nadvidov, Sandzhi Badmaev, the writer Nadvid Ubushiev, the dean of the Biological Faculty of the Kalmyk State University Nina Lidzhieva. Today on the territory of Dundu Khurul we have a temple dedicated to the lama Tsongkapa, which was built by Zungru lama from Lamyn arvn. Before the exile in 1943, in Kalmykia people from Lamyn arvn lived in three villages, including Ik Khoton, Bichkn Khoton and Manzhin Kol. The total number of families in these villages was about 50. After the war, the number of families in Lamyn arvn was 82, and the head of the arvn was Muzra Lantsaev. Today Lamyn arvn has 130 families, excluding families headed by single parents. In 1719 when lord Chitrt divided his property and people among his three sons. The oldest son Chagdr received 780 families (today their descendants live in Arshan’- Zel’men’), the middle son received 1000 families (today they live in Khanata, Zurgan and Teryachi), and the youngest son received 250 families (they live in Malye Derbety). The sons built a temple each. The subjects of the oldest son were named Ik Khurul people, that of the middle son – Dundu Khurul, and the people of the youngest son came to be known as Bag Khurul people. Dundu Khurul consists of 16 arvn groupings. In 1852 there were four wooden buildings on the territory of Dundu Khurul. The first wooden building was built by the Germans who came from Sarepta. The biggest temple housed the Buddha Monkin Zu. The second wooden building was a temple dedicated to Tsongkapa. The third temple was that of Zhizhetn bagshi, and the fourth temple housed a prayer wheel. The temple of Zhizhetn bagshi has the following story. In 1756 a Kalmyk delegation of 60 people set off for Tibet. Among them were 30 people from Dundu Khurul, including a 16-year old lama named Tevkya. Having studied for six years in Tibet, this lama received the name of Zhizhetn bagshi from the Dalai Lama himself and was acknowledged as the reincarnation of Mahakala. The Dalai Lama also gave him gifts, including 108 volumes of Ganjur, five statues of Buddhas, books and a special document with a stamp. Any person who had that document was supposed to come to see the Dalai Lama three times in seven years. 135 years on, Baazra bagshi took that document and went to see the Dalai Lama in Tibet. During World War Two many men from Dundu Khurul joined the Red Army, and many returned home with medals and honours, including Ivan Zhigreev who was the personal adjutant to the Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovskiy. Today the following people from our arvn are Doctors of Science: Pyurvya Erdniev, Evdokia Khabunova, Nina Lidzhieva, Boris Okonov, Muutl Okonov, and others. There are famous architects and sculptors as well. Item Open AccessNadvid Ubushiev, Legends About Gyunktn (Solong Donru) and Zhizhetn Bagshi(Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Documentation Project, University of Cambridge, 2018-12-24) Terbish, Baasanjav; Churyumova, Elvira; Oshaev, Nikolai; Okonov, AndzhurNadvid recounts two legends about Gyunktn (Solong Donru) and Zhizhetn bagshi. Question: Could you tell us about Dundu Khurul? How were the Ik, Dundu and Bag Khurul temples built? Nadvid: People from these three khurul were all subjects of lord Chitrt who had two sons, Avdzha and Gyunktn. Gyunktn is his later name when he became famous, but his original name was Solong Donru. According to a story, it was predicted that Solong Donru would defeat three evils, including a black wolf, a black castle and a black snake. This prediction was fulfilled. After his last victory over the black snake, he was on his way home, accompanied by 12 warriors. Solong Donru ordered that his warriors galloped ahead, saying that he would catch up with them later. Left behind, Solong Donru, however, died from the snake’s poison. Worried, the next day the warriors sent one of them back to find their lord. When the warrior arrived at the place where they had previously left Solong Donru, he saw a house, and inside there was a boy sitting on the floor playing with ankle bones. That boy, in fact, was the reincarnation of Solong Donru. The moment the warrior looked at the boy, he disappeared without a trace. Unable to complete his reincarnation, thus Solong Donru died forever, and with him the name of his clan died out. All this happened because Solong Donru’s warriors did not listen to him, and interrupted his reincarnation process. Solong Donru’s older brother Avdzha was a rather simple man. Despite this, he received from his father many people, while Solong Donru, when he was still alive, received only 10 households. Solong Donru became cross with his father. Pretending to be sick, one day his father called Solong Donru and asked his son to cook soup from the frozen leg of a bull. When Solong Donru broke the leg into small pieces with his bare hand, his father said: ‘You see, you are such a strong man, which your older brother is not. People will follow you’. As it was predicted, soon eight arvns, consisting of about 200 people, followed Solong Donru. Dundu Khurul has 16 arvns, Ik Khurul has 8 arvns. I also heard people refer to Ik Khurul as ‘Akh Khurul’ or ‘Etsk Khurul’ (meaning ‘older brother or father Khurul’). Question: Could you tell us about places where people perform clan rituals? How did settlements come about? Nadvid: Dund Khurul was founded by a powerful Khambo Lama (who educated 300 lamas). The Khambo Lama allocated land among people and appointed elders/heads (akh) to each nomadic settlement. The head of our arvn, called Lamyn arvn, was an old man, Muuzra Lavtsanov, whom I knew. Today there is no one from his family. His last descendant was a woman who was the mother-in-law of Vaska Tsebekov. Dundu Khurul, as I said, consists of 16 arvns. There was one wise lama called Zhizhetn bagshi who was from Dundu Khurul. He wanted Shemnr arvn people to live separately from the others. When Zhizhetn was 16, he was among the 30-people strong Kalmyk delegation that set off to Tibet. Since he was the youngest lama of the getsul rank, he walked at the very end of the delegation and ate the leftovers. When the delegation entered Tibet, they saw a white house whose owner was the grandfather of the Dalai Lama. The delegation spent the night in that house, and the next day continued on their journey to the capital of Tibet. In the morning, the Dalai Lama’s grandfather sent off his guest, but asked Zhizhetn to stay in the house. When the rest of the Kalmyks had gone, the grandfather gave Zhizhetn his white horse to ride it to Lhasa. On this horse Zhizhetn reached Lhasa a week earlier than the rest of his delegation. In Lhasa, the Dalai Lama was duly informed of the appearance of a foreigner riding the horse that belonged to his grandfather. During his audience with the Dalai Lama, Zhizhetn told him his story. Zhizhetn spent about six years studying in Tibet, becoming a lama. One hot summer he and his classmates set out on a trip across Tibet. They became thirsty, and entered a house where they were offered tea by a couple of girls. As the students drank tea, the small teapot would get replenished by itself. Then one of the girls handed over her cup with tea to Zhizhetn, to which he angrily commented: ‘I have never drunk leftover tea from other men’s cups, let alone from women’s cups’. The girl only said: ‘Study well and you will become a great teacher, but because of a woman one day you will lose your position’. Zhizhetn only waved away at her. Upon his return to Kalmykia, Zhizhetn was appointed as abbot of the Dundu Khurul Temple and started to build new temples. One day a group of people, including Zhizhetn, went to pay their respects to one Kalmyk lord. Since the lord held Zhizhetn in high regard, he invited the lama to sleep in his own tent. At night Zhizhetn woke up to see a snake crawling towards the lord’s wife who was sleeping on the floor in front of her husband’s bed. Seeing that the snake bit the woman, Zhizhetn jumped off his bed and set out sucking the poison out of the woman’s cheek with his mouth. The lord soon woke up to see the lama, as it seemed to him, kiss his wife. Although his wife explained the situation, the lord refused to believe her and ordered that the lama be executed. Zhizhetn dashed out of the tent. He died on the run, and was buried in Khomutnikovo. The two girls who offered tea to Zhizhetn and his classmates in Tibet were White and Green Tara.