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CERJ: Volume 8


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  • ItemOpen Access
    Touching collage: examining haptic potential in arts-based research through the lens of "Lucy's Picture"
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Stone, Lily; Stone, Lily [0000-0002-1175-4639]
    Collage in Arts-Based Research has great potential as a tactile, collaborative process but, in existing research, it is often presented as a predominantly visual medium. Using the children’s book Lucy’s Picture (Moon & Ayliffe, 1994) as a framework for my discussion, I examine the untapped haptic potential of collage and the resulting repercussions for ideas of inclusion. In the process, I draw on ten categories that provide fruitful sites for new understandings of collage to emerge and interact: embodiment; a conceptualisation of collage; touch; texture; play; memory; revolt; inclusion; intergenerational communication; and tactile illustration. While I conceptualise collage broadly as a piecing together of fragments in any context, in this article I explore collage as a specifically haptic medium that valorises embodied ways of knowing, rather than making recourse to the false dichotomy of body and mind.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Infusing hope in L2 writing strategy instruction research
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Zong, Yuchen; Zong, Yuchen [0000-0002-0338-0964]
    Second language learning strategy has received great attention for its role in helping learners to actualise language skills and improve performance, including writing. Congruent with Pressley and Harris (2006, pp. 270), growing evidence has demonstrated that “one approach that works better than any other for ensuring learners actually learn strategies” is strategy instruction. Though studies into strategy instruction have reached the ripe age of 40, one proposal has been recently initiated for innovating the design of strategy instructional packages which shall equally consider developing students’ willingness to learn, in addition to improving their language skills. The present paper hereby takes on the “skill plus will” nature of second language learning and teaching and suggests bringing “hope” from Snyder’s Hope Theory – a Positive Psychology construct that helps people push through the rough times, and acts as an indicator of one’s willpower and mental health – into strategy instruction research. The theoretical underpinnings of hope indicate potentials for being intertwined with second learning strategies for a holistic view of “skill and will” development among learners. Moreover, traditional strategy instruction designs can also draw insights from hope intervention to be more useful in empowering learners.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The importance of verbal language in the development of social understanding in autistic children
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Melville, Kyleigh Marie Kai-Li; Melville, Kyleigh Marie Kai-Li [0000-0001-7490-3323]
    Language has been identified as a significant factor for long-term cognitive, social and adaptive outcomes, such as social understanding. The relationship between verbal language and social understanding has been widely explored in typically developing children. However, the same could not be said for the relationship between verbal language and social understanding in autism. To fill this gap, the following literature review evaluated studies which have employed nonverbal measures to investigate the impact of an absence of verbal language on the development of social understanding in autistic children. Nonverbal measures were used to explore how autistic children attend to and process nonverbal language and social cues such as facial expressions, eye gaze and biological motion. Across the reviewed literature, it was strongly hypothesised that autistic children depend more heavily on verbal language to bring attention and meaning to nonverbal cues they would otherwise miss. Limitations of the reviewed studies were further discussed. Future research investigating this relationship would benefit from discarding a deficit model of autism and instead employing a humanistic perspective which can lend a holistic understanding. In addition, the use of qualitative methods in the form of semi-structured interviews can encourage more participants from under-represented subgroups on the spectrum (i.e., minimally and nonverbal autistic females) to feel empowered in sharing their unique experiences.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Can "Theory of Mind" be taught in school?
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Chu, Claudia Pik-Ki; Chu, Claudia Pik-Ki [0000-0002-3411-6795]
    “Theory of mind” (ToM) refers to an individual’s ability to understand and attribute one’s and other people’s mental states, such as thoughts, intentions and beliefs (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985; Premack & Woodruff, 1978). ToM is part of the construct of social cognition, and empirical evidence has suggested ToM plays a vital role in children’s social development. The significance of ToM in children’s development has led researchers to examine individual differences in ToM and their implications (Hughes, 2011). Additionally, researchers have considered whether children who lagged behind in ToM can catch up with their peers, leading to the question as to whether ToM can be taught in school. From a socio-constructivism perspective, it may be helpful to teach ToM in school as teachers can provide scaffolding to children, hence reducing gaps in ToM development. This review will explore whether ToM could be and should be taught in school. The review argues that, given its social origin, ToM can be taught in school, and it should be incorporated in the curriculum instead of being introduced as an independent subject. However, ToM should be taught in school only if educators are aware of the practical issues in doing so. There might be a limited generalisability of the learning effect, an iatrogenic possible effect, and the sociocultural and pedagogical differences across societies in children’s ToM development.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Teachers’ perceptions of cyberbullying: a comparative multilevel modeling approach
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Hurtubise, Peter
    Teachers’ perceptions of bullying and cyberbullying in schools are an increasingly important field in educational research. Teachers play a very important role in reducing bullying, and many psychological theories (such as Social Cognitive Theory and Expectancy Theory) would suggest that teachers’ perceptions of bullying may influence their likelihood of responding. The aim of the research was to explore how teachers’ perceptions affected their likelihood of responding to varied cyberbullying scenarios (e.g., whether at home or school). Using multilevel modeling, this study investigated the relationships between teachers’ likelihood of response and key psychological factors and background characteristics, drawing on a convenience sample of 212 new and experienced teachers from England and the United States. Some of these factors include valence (severity of cyberbullying), expectancy (level of teacher self-confidence), and instrumentality (confidence in selected task). Findings show that valence, expectancy, and location of the cyberbullying were statistically significant predictors of teachers’ likelihood of response to situations of cyberbullying. This study has potential implications for the design of teacher training programs that could help address cyberbullying in schools.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Age-related changes in sustained attention for older children from high poverty communities in the USA
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Cai, Yufei; Tsapali, Maria; Serpell, Zewelanji; Parr, Teresa; Ellefson, Michelle; Ellefson, Michelle [0000-0003-0407-9767]
    Sustained attention influences academic achievement because maintaining focus on a task for an extended period supports the acquisition of new skills. Investigating the development of sustained attention has been an important topic in educational and psychological research. This study includes secondary analysis of data collected as part of a larger project that provided opportunities for children to learn chess after school. This study analysed data related to sustained attention, which was measured by the Continuous Performance Task across one academic year in a predominantly African American sample. This sample consists of 149 participants (n = 66 females, M age = 9.57 years, SD = 0.89 years) attending schools in high poverty communities in the USA. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine changes in sustained attention in ethnic minority students from high poverty areas using a longitudinal design. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to conduct statistical analysis. The results indicated that participants’ performance on the sustained attention task improved significantly from the beginning to the end of the school year. Although past studies have examined changes in sustained attention in children using this same task, no studies have used a repeated-measures design in ethnic minority samples. These findings demonstrate the possibility that sustained attention improves continuously in children, despite the difficulties associated with growing up in high poverty environments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    England is blue and China is red: a case study of two Chinese adolescents’ expression of linguistic identity through the construction of English as a second language (ESL) poetry
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Halsall, Olivia Anne; Halsall, Olivia Anne [0000-0002-9148-9694]
    This paper reconceptualises linguistic identity for the contemporary era by recognising the integral role of socioeconomic influence in the construction of linguistic identities. By building upon Rampton’s (1990) framework of linguistic repertoire, this case study of two Chinese adolescents explores how linguistic identity is creatively expressed through the construction of twelve English as Second Language (ESL) poems. The data consist of a three-week, online poetry workshop and follow-up interviews. The poems and interview transcripts were coded for each facet of linguistic repertoire using Rampton’s framework (inheritance, affiliation, and expertise) as the thematic analytical tool. Two additional facets (expectation and affluence) were found, resulting in a total of five facets of linguistic repertoire. Participants displayed a strong sense of language inheritance toward their L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and mixed feelings of affiliation towards their L2 (English). They demonstrated strong sentiments of language expertise and an inclination to show off their bilingualism while possessing high expectations of their English abilities. Themes of affluence revealed an awareness of educational privilege; English was seen as a “tool” to acquire more capital and access international communities. Therefore, inheritance, affiliation, expertise, expectation, and affluence comprise these Chinese adolescents’ linguistic identity, revealing socioeconomic influence to be integral to contemporary expressions of linguistic identity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dialogues of fisherwomen in Amazonian coastal communities - outcomes of a financial literacy education programme
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Scarpa-Gebara, Raquel; Batista, Jonas; Scarpa-Gebara, Raquel [0000-0001-6466-9246]; Batista, Jonas [0000-0002-5636-7691]
    The richness of resources in the Amazonian coastal region, combined with the need to break free from the constant financial vulnerability, stand at the heart of our fieldwork, conducted as part of the Fish Forever Program for Rare Brazil, an NGO that catalyses behavioural change to achieve enduring conservation results. Our research proposes an analysis of the intended and unintended outcomes of the financial literacy education programme offered during 2020 to the fisherwomen of eight communities in the State of Pará, Brazil. We aimed to understand the enablers and implications of individual and group change arising from that education programme. Drawing from theory of change and emancipatory education theories, we analyse evidence derived from ethnographic journals, interviews, and document analysis. Our initial findings show that the structure of the meetings for the financial literacy education programme enabled the emergence of new social-relational links amongst the women. This, in turn, allowed each woman to discover a new side of their identity, both on an individual and a communal level. Overall, we identify five themes of unintended outcomes: structured dialogue, foundations of dialogue, oracy, transformative emancipation, and self and group identity. We offer an analysis of their causes and implications. Using dialogic approaches to co-develop strategies of financial literacy allowed the women in eight Amazonian coastal communities to manage their fisheries' resources collectively and sustainably as well as see their cultural identity in a new light. We reflect on how this shift in the perception of self and group identities challenges elements of structural and cultural violence in the context of Amazonian fisherwomen. We conclude by proposing the inclusion of a feminist research perspective into the operationalisation of evaluation tools for education programmes aimed at fisherwomen in coastal communities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Towards a more equitable future: CERJ efforts to advance equity in a post-pandemic era
    (CERJ, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 2021-10-31) Liu, Meng; Liu, Meng [0000-0001-8323-2699]