Entanglement and quantum gate processes in the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator
Owen, Edmund Thomas
Barnes, Crispin H. W.
University of Cambridge
Department of Physics
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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Owen, E. T. (2013). Entanglement and quantum gate processes in the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator (Doctoral thesis). https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.16600
Quantum states can contain correlations which are stronger than is possible in classical systems. Quantum information technologies use these correlations, which are known as entanglement, as a resource for implementing novel protocols in a diverse range of fields such as cryptography, teleportation and computing. However, current methods for generating the required entangled states are not necessarily robust against perturbations in the proposed systems. In this thesis, techniques will be developed for robustly generating the entangled states needed for these exciting new technologies. The thesis starts by presenting some basic concepts in quantum information proccessing. In Ch. 2, the numerical methods which will be used to generate solutions for the dynamic systems in this thesis are presented. It is argued that using a GPU-accelerated staggered leapfrog technique provides a very efficient method for propagating the wave function. In Ch. 3, a new method for generating maximally entangled two-qubit states using a pair of interacting particles in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator is proposed. The robustness of this technique is demonstrated both analytically and numerically for a variety of interaction potentials. When the two qubits are initially in the same state, no entanglement is generated as there is no direct qubit-qubit interaction. Therefore, for an arbitrary initial state, this process implements a root-of-swap entangling quantum gate. Some possible physical implementations of this proposal for low-dimensional semiconductor systems are suggested. One of the most commonly used qubits is the spin of an electron. However, in semiconductors, the spin-orbit interaction can couple this qubit to the electron's momentum. In order to incorporate this e ffect into our numerical simulations, a new discretisation of this interaction is presented in Ch. 4 which is signi ficantly more accurate than traditional methods. This technique is shown to be similar to the standard discretisation for magnetic fields. In Ch. 5, a simple spin-precession model is presented to predict the eff ect of the spin-orbit interaction on the entangling scheme of Ch. 3. It is shown that the root-of-swap quantum gate can be restored by introducing an additional constraint on the system. The robustness of the gate to perturbations in this constraint is demonstrated by presenting numerical solutions using the methods of Ch. 4.
This work was supported by a Doctoral Training Grant awarded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
This record's DOI: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.16600
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