High-K materials and metal gates for CMOS applications
Wallace, Robert M
Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports
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Robertson, J., & Wallace, R. M. (2014). High-K materials and metal gates for CMOS applications. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 88 1-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2014.11.001
The scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors has led to the silicon dioxide layer used as a gate dielectric becoming so thin that the gate leakage current becomes too large. This led to the replacement of SiO2 by a physically thicker layer of a higher dielectric constant or ‘high-K’ oxide such as hafnium oxide. Intensive research was carried out to develop these oxides into high quality electronic materials. In addition, the incorporation of Ge in the CMOS transistor structure has been employed to enable higher carrier mobility and performance. This review covers both scientific and technological issues related to the high-K gate stack – the choice of oxides, their deposition, their structural and metallurgical behaviour, atomic diffusion, interface structure, their electronic structure, band offsets, electronic defects, charge trapping and conduction mechanisms, reliability, mobility degradation and oxygen scavenging to achieve the thinnest oxide thicknesses. The high K oxides were implemented in conjunction with a replacement of polycrystalline Si gate electrodes with metal gates. The strong metallurgical interactions between the gate electrodes and the HfO2 which resulted an unstable gate threshold voltage resulted in the use of the lower temperature ‘gate last’ process flow, in addition to the standard ‘gate first’ approach. Work function control by metal gate electrodes and by oxide dipole layers is discussed. The problems associated with high K oxides on Ge channels are also discussed.
RMW acknowledges an IBM Faculty award and JR acknowledges funding from EPSRC.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2014.11.001
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/246441