Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne e ect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites
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Staniewicz, L., Vaudey, T., Degrandcourt, C., Couty, M., Gaboriaud, F., & Midgley, P. (2014). Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne e ect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites. 4 (7389)https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07389
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling rubber-filler composite formation.
L.S. and P.A.M thank Michelin for funding. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement 291522-3DIMAGE.
European Research Council (291522)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07389
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/246673
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Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/