Cross-Cultural Variations in Big Five Relationships with Religiosity: A Socio-Cultural Motives Perspective
Gebauer, Jochen E
Gosling, Samuel D
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
American Psychological Association
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Gebauer, J. E., Bleidorn, W., Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P., Lamb, M., & Potter, J. (2014). Cross-Cultural Variations in Big Five Relationships with Religiosity: A Socio-Cultural Motives Perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107 1064-1091. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037683
A socio-cultural motives perspective (SMP) on Big Five relationships is introduced. According to the SMP, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness elicit assimilation to socio-cultural norms, Openness elicits contrast from these norms, and Extraversion and Neuroticism are independent of socio-cultural assimilation and contrast. Due to socio-cultural assimilation, then, relationships of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness with an outcome will wax (become more positive or less negative) with that outcome’s increasing socio-cultural normativeness. Due to socio-cultural contrast, relationships of Openness with an outcome will wane (become less positive or more negative) with that outcome’s increasing socio-cultural normativeness. We tested the SMP using religiosity as our outcome. Study 1 included four cross-sectional self-report datasets across 66 countries (N = 1,129,334), 50 US states (N = 1,057,342), 15 German federal states (N = 20,885), and 121 British urban areas (N = 386,315). Study 2 utilized informant-report data across 37 countries (N = 544,512). Study 3 used longitudinal data across 15 German federal states (N = 14,858). Results consistently supported the SMP. Relationships of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness with religiosity were more positive in religious socio-cultural contexts, compared to secular contexts. Relationships of Openness with religiosity were more negative in religious socio-cultural contexts, compared to secular contexts. At a more general level, the SMP offers theory-driven explanations for cross-cultural variations in Big Five relationships with their outcomes.
Big Five Relationships, Socio-Cultural Normativeness, Socio-Cultural Assimilation, Socio-Cultural Contrast, Religiosity
We thankfully acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation (DFG; GE 2515/3-1).
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037683
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/247004