Interleukin-1α Activity in Necrotic Endothelial Cells is Controlled by Caspase-1 Cleavage of Interleukin-1 Receptor-2; Implications for Allograft Rejection
The Journal of Biological Chemistry
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Burzynski, L., Humphry, M., Bennett, M., & Clarke, M. (2015). Interleukin-1α Activity in Necrotic Endothelial Cells is Controlled by Caspase-1 Cleavage of Interleukin-1 Receptor-2; Implications for Allograft Rejection. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290 25188-25196. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.667915
Inflammation is a key instigator of the immune responses that drive atherosclerosis and allograft rejection. IL-1α, a powerful cytokine that activates both innate and adaptive immunity, induces vessel inflammation after release from necrotic vascular smooth muscle cells (3 VSMCs). Similarly, IL-1α released from endothelial cells (ECs) damaged during transplant drives allograft rejection. However, IL-1α requires cleavage for full cytokine activity, and what controls cleavage in necrotic ECs is currently unknown. We find that ECs have very low levels of IL-1α activity upon necrosis. However, TNFα or IL-1 induce significant levels of active IL-1α in EC necrotic lysates without alteration in protein level. Increased activity requires cleavage of IL-1α by calpain to the more active mature form. Immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays show that IL-1α associates with interleukin-1 receptor-2 (IL-1R2), and this association is decreased by TNFα or IL-1 and requires caspase activity. Thus, TNFα or IL-1 treatment of ECs leads to caspase proteolytic activity that cleaves IL-1R2, allowing IL-1α dissociation and subsequent processing by calpain. Importantly, ECs could be primed by IL-1α from adjacent damaged VSMCs, and necrotic ECs could activate neighbouring normal ECs and VSMCs causing them to release inflammatory cytokines and upregulate adhesion molecules, thus amplifying inflammation. These data unravel the molecular mechanisms and interplay between damaged ECs and VSMCs that lead to activation of IL-1α and thus initiation of adaptive responses that cause graft rejection.
Necrosis (necrotic cell death), inflammation, interleukin-1 (IL-1), endothelial cell, vascular smooth muscle cell, transplantation, vascular biology, interleukin-1 receptor-2, caspase, calpain
This study was supported by British Heart Foundation Grants FS/09/005/26845, FS/13/3/30038 and FS/11/77/29327 (MCHC) & RG/13/14/30314 (MRB); the BHF Cambridge CRE; and the NIHR Cambridge BRC.
British Heart Foundation (FS/09/005/26845)
British Heart Foundation (FS/11/77/29327)
British Heart Foundation (FS/13/3/30038)
British Heart Foundation (RG/13/14/30314)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.667915
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/250477
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Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/