Behavioural addiction—A rising tide?
Stein, Dan J
Goudriaan, Anna E
van, Holst Ruth Janke
Grant, Jon E
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Chamberlain, S., Lochner, C., Stein, D. J., Goudriaan, A. E., van, H. R. J., Zohar, J., & Grant, J. E. (2015). Behavioural addiction—A rising tide?. European Neuropsychopharmacology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.013
The term ‘addiction’ was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent ‘behavioural addictions’. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category ‘Substance Related and Addictive Disorders’, including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered ‘addictions’? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, ‘Internet addiction’, trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by ‘behavioural addiction’, and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions.
Addiction, Compulsivity, Impulsivity, Cognition, Imaging
This research was supported by a Grant from the Academy of Medical Sciences (UK) to Dr Chamberlain. Dr Chamberlain consults for Cambridge Cognition. Dr Grant has received research Grants from the National Center for Responsible Gaming, and Forest and Roche Pharmaceuticals. Dr Grant receives yearly compensation from Springer Publishing for acting as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Gambling Studies and has received royalties from Oxford University Press, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., Norton Press, and McGraw Hill. Dr. Goudriaan was supported by an innovative scheme Grant of the Dutch Scientific Association (ZonMw VIDI Grant no. 016.136.354) and received support from the European Association for Alcohol Research, the National Center for Responsible Gaming and has consulted for TüV Germany. The other authors report no potential conflicts of interest or funding declarations
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.013
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/253022
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/
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