Ubiquitin-Mediated Degradation of Aurora Kinases
Frontiers in Oncology
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Lindon, C., Grant, R., & Min, M. (2016). Ubiquitin-Mediated Degradation of Aurora Kinases. Frontiers in Oncology, 5 (307)https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2015.00307
The Aurora kinases are essential regulators of mitosis in eukaryotes. In somatic cell divisions of higher eukaryotes, the paralogs Aurora kinase A (AurA) and Aurora kinase B (AurB) play non-overlapping roles that depend on their distinct spatiotemporal activities. These mitotic roles of Aurora kinases depend on their interactions with different partners that direct them to different mitotic destinations and different substrates: AurB is a component of the chromosome passenger complex that orchestrates the tasks of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, while AurA has many known binding partners and mitotic roles, including a well-characterized interaction with TPX2 that mediates its role in mitotic spindle assembly. Beyond the spatial control conferred by different binding partners, Aurora kinases are subject to temporal control of their activation and inactivation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is a critical route to irreversible inactivation of these kinases, which must occur for ordered transition from mitosis back to interphase. Both AurA and AurB undergo targeted proteolysis after anaphase onset as substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase, even while they continue to regulate steps during mitotic exit. Temporal control of Aurora kinase destruction ensures that AurB remains active at the midbody during cytokinesis long after AurA activity has been largely eliminated from the cell. Differential destruction of Aurora kinases is achieved despite the fact that they are targeted at the same time and by the same ubiquitin ligase, making these substrates an interesting case study for investigating molecular determinants of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in higher eukaryotes. The prevalence of Aurora overexpression in cancers and their potential as therapeutic targets add importance to the task of understanding the molecular determinants of Aurora kinase stability. Here, we review what is known about ubiquitin-mediated targeting of these critical mitotic regulators and discuss the different factors that contribute to proteolytic control of Aurora kinase activity in the cell.
Aurora kinase, AURKA, AURKB, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, mitosis, APC/C
Work in CL’s lab is currently supported by the Medical Research Council (MR/M01102X/1), while past research on Aurora kinases discussed in this review was supported by Cancer Research UK (C3/A10239).
MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/M01102X/1)
Cancer Research UK (A10239)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2015.00307
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/254177
Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Licence URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/
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