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dc.contributor.authorFurey, Cen
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-29T11:25:06Z
dc.date.available2016-03-29T11:25:06Z
dc.date.issued2015-01-26en
dc.identifier.citationFurey. Physics Letters B (2015) Vol. 742, pp. 195-199. doi: 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.01.023en
dc.identifier.issn0370-2693
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/254683
dc.description.abstractWe explain how an unexpected algebraic structure, the division algebras, can be seen to underlie a generation of quarks and leptons. From this new vantage point, electrons and quarks are simply excitations from the neutrino, which formally plays the role of a vacuum state. Using the ladder operators which exist within the system, we build a number operator in the usual way. It turns out that this number operator, divided by 3, mirrors the behaviour of electric charge. As a result, we see that electric charge is quantized because number operators can only take on integer values. Finally, we show that a simple hermitian form, built from these ladder operators, results uniquely in the nine generators of SUc(3) and Uem(1). This gives a direct route to the two unbroken gauge symmetries of the standard model.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by the Templeton Foundation, and also in part by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/*
dc.titleCharge quantization from a number operatoren
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis research was supported by the Templeton Foundation, and also in part by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.en
prism.endingPage199
prism.publicationDate2015en
prism.publicationNamePhysics Letters Ben
prism.startingPage195
prism.volume742en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.physletb.2015.01.023en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-01-26en
dc.identifier.eissn1873-2445
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales