Divergent functional connectivity during attentional processing in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease
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Kobeleva, X., Firbank, M., Peraza, L., Gallagher, P., Thomas, A., Burn, D., O'Brien, J., & et al. (2017). Divergent functional connectivity during attentional processing in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 92 8-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.02.016
Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT), where they were instructed to press a button in response to the majority direction of arrows, which were either all pointing in the same direction or with one pointing in the opposite direction. Network activations during both target conditions and a baseline condition (no target) were derived by (ICA) Independent Component Analysis, and interactions between these networks were examined using the beta series correlations approach. Our study revealed that FC of ventral and dorsal attention networks DAN was reduced in LBD during all conditions, although most prominently during incongruent trials. These alterations in connectivity might be driven by a failure of engagement of ventral attention networks, and consequent over-reliance on the DAN. In contrast, when comparing AD patients with the other groups, we found hyperconnectivity between the posterior part of the default mode network (DMN) and the DAN in all conditions, particularly during incongruent trials. This might be attributable to either a compensatory effect to overcome DMN dysfunction, or be arising as a result of a disturbed transition of the DMN from rest to task. Our results demonstrate that dementia syndromes can be characterized both by hyper- and hypoconnectivity of distinct brain networks, depending on the interplay between task demand and available cognitive resources. However these are dependent upon the underlying pathology, which needs to be taken into account when developing specific cognitive therapies for LBD as compared to Alzheimer's.
dementia with Lewy bodies, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Parkinson's disease dementia, attention networks, default mode network, executive function, hyperconnectivity, hypoconnectivity
The Research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre based at Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Newcastle University. This work was also supported by an Intermediate Wellcome Clinical Fellowship; Contract grant number: (WT088441MA) to John-Paul Taylor; Contract grant sponsor: the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), and Newcastle Biomedical Research Unit (BRU) based at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle University.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.02.016
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/264119