Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies.
Ferreira, EH Martins
American Chemical Society (ACS)
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Cançado, L., Jorio, A., Ferreira, E. M., Stavale, F., Achete, C., Capaz, R., Moutinho, M., et al. (2011). Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies.. Nano Lett, 11 (8), 3190-3196. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl201432g
We present a Raman study of Ar(+)-bombarded graphene samples with increasing ion doses. This allows us to have a controlled, increasing, amount of defects. We find that the ratio between the D and G peak intensities, for a given defect density, strongly depends on the laser excitation energy. We quantify this effect and present a simple equation for the determination of the point defect density in graphene via Raman spectroscopy for any visible excitation energy. We note that, for all excitations, the D to G intensity ratio reaches a maximum for an interdefect distance ∼3 nm. Thus, a given ratio could correspond to two different defect densities, above or below the maximum. The analysis of the G peak width and its dispersion with excitation energy solves this ambiguity.
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/G042357/1)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/nl201432g
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/286110