Autosegmentation of the rectum on megavoltage image guidance scans.

Sutcliffe, MPF 
Harrison, K 
Scaife, JE 
Parker, MA 

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Autosegmentation of image guidance (IG) scans is crucial for streamlining and optimising delivered dose calculation in radiotherapy. By accounting for interfraction motion, daily delivered dose can be accumulated and incorporated into automated systems for adaptive radiotherapy. Autosegmentation of IG scans is challenging due to poorer image quality than typical planning kilovoltage computed tomography (kVCT) systems, and the resulting reduction of soft tissue contrast in regions such as the pelvis makes organ boundaries less distinguishable. Current autosegmentation solutions generally involve propagation of planning contours to the IG scan by deformable image registration (DIR). Here, we present a novel approach for primary autosegmentation of the rectum on megavoltage IG scans acquired during prostate radiotherapy, based on the Chan-Vese algorithm. Pre-processing steps such as Hounsfield unit/intensity scaling, identifying search regions, dealing with air, and handling the prostate, are detailed. Post-processing features include identification of implausible contours (nominally those affected by muscle or air), 3D self-checking, smoothing, and interpolation. In cases where the algorithm struggles, the best estimate on a given slice may revert to the propagated kVCT rectal contour. Algorithm parameters were optimised systematically for a training cohort of 26 scans, and tested on a validation cohort of 30 scans, from 10 patients. Manual intervention was not required. Comparing Chan-Vese autocontours with contours manually segmented by an experienced clinical oncologist achieved a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.78 (SE < 0.011). This was comparable with DIR methods for kVCT and CBCT published in the literature. The autosegmentation system was developed within the VoxTox Research Programme for accumulation of delivered dose to the rectum in prostate radiotherapy, but may have applicability to further anatomical sites and imaging modalities.

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adaptive radiotherapy, autosegmentation, deformable image registration, delivered dose, image guidance, rectal contouring
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Biomed Phys Eng Express
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IOP Publishing
Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/I004297/1)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Cancer Research UK (Ref: C8857/A13405)