Impulsivity in Gambling Disorder and problem gambling: a meta-analysis.
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nature Publishing Group
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Ioannidis, K., Hook, R., Wickham, K., Grant, J. E., & Chamberlain, S. (2019). Impulsivity in Gambling Disorder and problem gambling: a meta-analysis.. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 44 (8), 1354-1361. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0393-9
Gambling Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric condition often linked to dysfunction of cognitive domains regulating impulsive behavior. Despite the centrality of impulsivity to neurobiological models of Gambling Disorder, a comprehensive meta-analysis of all impulsive cognitive domains has yet to be conducted. It is also not clear whether cognitive deficits in Gambling Disorder extend to those with problem (at-risk) gambling. A systematic review was undertaken of case-control studies examining the following cognitive domains in Gambling Disorder or in at-risk (problem) gambling: attentional inhibition, motor inhibition, discounting, decision-making, and reflection-impulsivity. Case-control differences in cognition were identified using meta-analysis (random effects modeling). Moderation analysis explored potential influences of age, gender, presence/absence of comorbidities in cases, geographical region, and study quality on cognitive performance. Gambling Disorder was associated with significant impairments in motor (g=0.39-0.48) and attentional (g=0.55) inhibition, discounting (g=0.66), and decision-making (g=0.63) tasks. For problem gambling, only decision-making had sufficient data for meta-analysis, yielding significant impairment versus controls (g=0.66), however study quality was relatively low. Insufficient data were available for meta-analysis of reflection-impulsivity. There was evidence for significant publication bias only for the discounting domain, after an outlier study was excluded. Study quality overall was reasonable (mean score 71.9% of maximum), but most studies (~85%) did not screen for comorbid impulse control and related disorders. This meta-analysis indicates heightened impulsivity across a range of cognitive domains in Gambling Disorder. Decision-making impulsivity may extend to problem (at-risk) gambling, but further studies are needed to confirm such candidate cognitive vulnerability markers.
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0393-9
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/291676
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