Descriptive epidemiology of energy expenditure in the UK: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-15.
International journal of epidemiology
Oxford University Press
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Brage, S., Lindsay, T., Venables, M., Wijndaele, K., Westgate, K., Collins, D., Roberts, C., et al. (2020). Descriptive epidemiology of energy expenditure in the UK: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-15.. International journal of epidemiology, 49 (3), 1007-1021. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa005
Background Little is known about population levels of energy expenditure as national surveillance systems typically employ only crude measures. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) in the UK measures energy expenditure in a 10% subsample by goldstandard doubly-labelled water (DLW). Methods DLW-subsample participants from NDNS (383 males, 387 females) aged 4-91years were recruited between 2008 and 2015 (Rolling Programme). Height and weight were measured, and bodyfat percentage estimated by deuterium dilution. Results Absolute Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) increased steadily throughout childhood, ranging from 6.2 and 7.2 MJ/day in 4-7yr-old to 9.7 and 11.7 MJ/day for 14-16yr-old girls and boys, respectively. TEE peaked in 17-27yr-old women (10.7 MJ/day) and 28-43yr-old men (14.4 MJ/day), before decreasing gradually in old age. Physical Acitivty Energy Expenditure (PAEE) declined steadily with age from childhood (87 kJ/day/kg in 4-7yr olds) through to old age (38 kJ/day/kg in 71-91yr olds). No differences were observed by time, region, and macronutrient composition. Bodyfat percentage was strongly inversely associated with PAEE throughout life, irrespective of expressing PAEE relative to bodymass or fat-free mass. Compared to females with <30% bodyfat, females >40% recorded 29 kJ/day/kg and 18 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE in analyses adjusted for age, geographical region, and time of assessment. Similarly, compared to males with <25% bodyfat, males >35% recorded 26 kJ/day/kg and 10 kJ/day/kg fat-free mass less PAEE. Conclusions This first nationally representative study reports levels of human energy expenditure as measured by gold-standard methodology; values may serve as reference for other population studies. Age, sex and body composition are the main determinants of energy expenditure.
The authors were supported by the UK Medical Research Council (unit programme numbers. MC_UU_12015/1, MC_UU_12015/3, U105960371) and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Cambridge (IS-BRC-1215-20014). TL was funded by the Cambridge Trust.
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0617-10149)
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa005
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/300151
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